When dealing with qualitative research, one takes into account many considerations. The clarity of the purpose of study is most important. It must be significant, organized well and the researcher must ensure its findings contribute theoretically (Pope and Mays, 2000, p.g12). The study’s main goal should be to answer the question using the laid down procedures. The research should establish findings that are applicable in other fields as well. He should also have the ability to establish those findings that had not been determined earlier. Other considerations would be to understand the complexities of a population such as the values and behaviors of a particular culture.
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From the article Standing on the promises: The experiences of black women, the purpose of the study is clear in that, it sets out to examine the problems of southern black women administrators coming from a tradition of generational protest (Guaetae J.M ,2005). Its significance is to investigate the problems faced by black women in their quest for leadership as administrators. Its theoretical contribution is in advocating for social justice in modern society without racial and gender prejudice. The introduction is organized well with clear ideas. The author took in to account the culture of the black woman as well as intangible factors that is, her gender roles.
The researcher as an instrument can cause bias in research. His expectations can lead him to concentrate more on the information that will influence their expected outcome. This is referred to as observer bias. The researcher can also influence the study group to behave in a way that his expectations are achieved. He can do this by giving much information to the subjects as to what the study seeks to find out referred to as the Pygmalion effect. Also, when researching based on some variable, the researcher may rate subjects based on their impression on the subjects. This is referred to as the halo effect.
Observer bias can be minimized by the application of a double blind technique, where both the researcher and the subjects cannot influence the results. For example in the administration of drugs, the researcher should not know which is placebo and which is real. To avoid the Pygmalion effect the researcher should avoid giving too much information in regard to the research expectations. The researcher can avoid the halo effect by concentrating more on what is observed rather than his impression on the subjects.
Some of the approaches used in the qualitative analysis are: Ethnography whose term originates from the field of anthropology. It seeks to study the communities culture although it is being used in other areas such as in business culture for example the research in constructivist Frameworks using Ethnographic techniques; (Chrisetensen,et al 2010 )Field study is where the researcher goes into the field, it is closely related to participant observation for example use of systems development methodologies in practice: field research and Grounded theory developed by Glasser and Straut, seeks to develop a grounded theory that is , one that is based on certain truisms as illustrated in Rigour and grounded theory research.(Trochim.W,2006)
The application of the field study approach was appropriate because the researcher was in a position to investigate the use of systems development methodologies based on actual observations and not assumptions. In the example of the grounded theory approach there could be an element of assumption and exaggeration in inquiry to nursing, where the subjects choose to give vague information leading to wrong theory development. The research on constructivist frameworks, the ethnographic technique is relevant as the subject in itself is science based.
Christensen, L. B., Johnson, R. B., & Turner, L. A. (2010). ‘Research methods, design, and analysis’ (11 ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Pope, C., & May, N., (2000), ‘Qualitative Research in Healthcare’. London: BMJ.
Trochim, W., (2000), ’Research Methods Knowledge Base.’ Atomic Dog Publishing: Cincinnati, OH.