Having entered the third millennium, Russia and the USA have collided not only with military-political, but also with social and economical, and demographic calls. And each of them, cooperating with others, puts forward problems for which decision essentially new approaches both at the state level and at a level of business, public structures are required, the high personal responsibility and participation of citizens is required also.
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Despite political-economical distinctions, there are the same problems for both countries:
- aging of the population;
- growing migratory streams;
- distribution of new forms of poverty (the concept “poverty” is being transformed);
- professional training for the economy based on knowledge.
And however, divergences between them at separate stages were serious; Russia and the USA are doomed to interaction not only in the struggle against threats of terrorism and distribution of the weapon of mass destruction but also in the finding of adequate answers to the questions connected with improvement of quality of human resources and creation of conditions for the realization of their potential. ‘Revealing of optimum methods of regulation of the international migratory streams, counteraction of illegal immigration, improvement of quality of the human capital, preparation of the experts corresponding the requirements of innovative economy, adaptation to a varying age structure of the population and needs of the labor market – the actual agenda both for Russia and for the USA’ (Rosenberg, 2002, p. 87).
For the development of the proved position allowing the countries objectively to compare a course of realization of these problems, it is necessary: to harmonize representations about such crucial concepts, like social security, the state support, the social help, charity; to allocate indicators of efficiency of activity of the state bodies on the improvement of quality of life of the population and increase of competitiveness of manpower.
The basis for interaction with the USA in this space is comprehension by Russian authority of a key role of human resources in the modern world and the importance of the state policy promoting their development, social security, the realization of the saved up knowledge and skills. Radical economic transformations of 90-ies were accompanied by actual ignoring of the social sphere. The situation has qualitatively changed only during the latest time. Realization of national projects in the field of education, public health services, housing construction, acceptance of some measures directed on improvement of a demographic situation are entered in the mainstream of state policy of the developed countries, including the USA. For successful realization of these social initiatives, the development of corresponding mechanisms, carrying out of structural reforms in socially significant branches in view of foreign, in particular American, experience and the Russian features are needed.
The modern lines defining the structure of social policy both in Russia and in the USA are caused by dynamically varying needs of economic development. Functions of social protection of the population remain its base element. As the improvement of quality of human resources becomes a condition of maintenance of national competitiveness and safety, the value of results of political activity as a factor of producing process, economic growth, strengthening of positions in the world market increases. And in this plan experience of the USA can be most useful to Russia as this country is the leader in the field of the innovative technologies applied in the social sphere, aimed at creation and perfection of the motivational environment for the development of human resources, their realizations labor, enterprise, and a mental potential.
For the preservation priority of social security, public health services, formations, vocational training in the politician of the USA were outlined new tendencies which have found the expression in reforming the system of relief aid, a search of new approaches to the decision of problems of a provision of pensions, medical insurance, activation of measures on improvement of quality of labor, preparation of experts, availability of the secondary and special education.
Not only in Russia, but also in the USA, the increasing value of a state policy in the sphere of work is caused by the set of factors of the economic, scientific and technical, social character connected with the delay of growth of a number of highly paid workplaces with full working hours, universal expansion of use of new forms of partial, temporary employment (causing instability of reception of incomes that increases risk it to appear below the breadline both during labor activity, and after an output on pension). For Russia, as well as for the USA, extremely actual there are the questions connected with migratory processes: ‘necessity of development of additional measures of economic and legal character on their regulation, and also monitoring of social protection of migrants are obvious’ (Rosenberg, 2002, p. 94).
In conditions of intensive ageing of population and decrease in birth rate the immigration resource turns to the basic means of stabilization of population or, anyway, delays its loss. In the last one and a half decades immigrants have provided 28 % of an increase in population of the USA. Searches of the balanced policy concerning immigrants are taking place in Russia.
Rosenberg Justin (2002)The Follies of Globalisation Theory: Polemical Essays, Verso