Chechens are the ethnic minority subordinated to Russia for the last two hundred years. After the fall of the Soviet Union, a movement for independence was launched by the Chechen separatists who aimed to gain independence for their country. As a result, two wars between Chechens and Russia were started and many acts of terrorism were committed in the territory of Russia.
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The two countries are involved into the movement: Chechen Republic and Russia. Though, it is considered that there is a single separatist movement, there is a number of separatists groups formed by local and outside militants, these are “a loosely organized group with semi-independent commanders” (Bhattacharji n. p.).
The movement is spread all over the country. However, separate organizations are located in Dagestan and in the North Caucasus regions of the country. Many minor organizations are located in the adjoining sections in the Caucasus like Kabardino-Balkaria (Bhattacharji n. p.). Permanent rebels and terrorist attacks occur North Ossetia and Ingushetia.
1990s – The formation of the Russian Federation Republic of Chechnya and beginning of the independence movement.
1994 – 1996 – First Chechen War and winning of the de-facto independence from Russia.
1999 – Chechen militants invaded the Republic of Dagestan in order to help local separatists.
2000 – Russian army stated its control in the Chechen capital, Grozny and established the Russian control over Chechnya.
October 2002 – The terrorist attack the theater in Moscow demanding to call off the Russian troops from the Chechnya.
2006 – The death of the separatist leader Shamil Basayev.
April 2009 – Russia seized the counter-terrorism operation while calling off a major part of the army.
August 2009 – The rebel of the separatist government under the leadership of Akhmed Zakayev against Chechen police.
A major demand of Chechen separatist is to establish the independence of Chechnya and in so-called Muslim region. In order to attain the independence, the separatist groups take radical measures which often result in terroristic attacks in Russia and Chechnya.
Among the most famous attack are the bombing of the apartment building in Moscow in August 1999, seizure of Moscow’s Dubrovka Theater in October 2002 and attack in Ingushetia in October 2005 when more than one hundred people were killed (Bhattacharji n. p.) The separatist organizations constantly claim that they are responsible for these attacks and are not going to step back.
These days, the Chechen conflict is still one of the urgent questions of the international security. Apart from the constant terrorist movements and attack in Russia, some scholars assume that these separatist organizations are related to such terrorist movements as Al Qaeda:
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Foreign fighters can be described as “individual Muslims who make a conscious decision to join a grouping that is fighting occupation and/or aspiring for self-governance that denies their current national identity” (Freni n. p.). However, the prime goal of the movement is forgotten and the separatist movement transformed into jihad. Current separatist leader, Doku Umarov, attempted to proclaim the Caucasian Emirate and himself as the only leader “Emir” of the country.
Bhattacharji, Preeti. Chechen Terrorism (Russia, Chechnya, Separatist). Council on Foreign Relations, 8 Apr. 2010. Web..
Freni, Salvatore J. Examining the Radicalization of Chechen Separatists During the Resistance Movement. Student Pulse Academic Journal, 2 Feb. 2010. Web.