The purpose of the study consists in the attitude of mainstream teachers towards the inclusion of children with disabilities. The attitude helps to develop strong positive relationships with students because it provides them with hope for the future. Students are taught how to go about bad situations that may crop up in their lives and to concentrate on achieving their goals regardless of disability. The study deals with the inclusion of students with diverse abilities in a normal classroom
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Design & Procedure
Correlational statistical design is chosen by the authors as an appropriate one for this kind of study. The questionnaires are carefully planned to yield pertinent data as far as the motives for the desired ends are concerned. SPSS is the most common statistical software employed for the analysis of various kinds of data with assured accuracy due to being dependent on computers more than on manual calculations nowadays. The statistical instruments include response scales of 1-7 ranging from ‘Strongly Agree’ to ‘Strongly Disagree’, which suggests that a lot of data were to be generated for the statistical analysis. The author describes all the instruments in detail as far as their historical origin and validity for this particular study are concerned. In identical studies done in the past, correlations were within permissible limits of consistency as well as accuracy required to form valid inferences.
The quality of outcomes
The authors use real-world measures such as sample size, population, and predictor variables. The study should involve a predictive design. Measures of the same construct should be measured sometimes in the future, and similar sets of data are compared with ascertaining validity.
Participant’s outcome reported
The results include all the teachers who participated. No teacher left before the completion of the project. According to the authors, participants’ information was very important to provide reliable results.
The long-term outcomes are shown in the report. The authors insist that inclusion is an entity in itself. Regular practice enables one to achieve better work outcomes.
Limitations of the study
As is stated by the authors, the limitation of this research is the inability of correlation. It is based on studies to provide evidence for the inclusion of students with disabilities. This example is a ‘convenience sample’ because the participants were aware of the aims of the study.
Practical and Clinical Significance
Extremely important interdependence was established between variable data. All instruments studied by the author show statistically significant positive relationships with each other leading the writers to conclude that attitude, career satisfaction, and life satisfaction are positively correlated with each other.
Sample size adequacy
The study deals with 72 teachers from 12 city schools. It seems to be an appropriate sample scale at this stage as it eliminates variation due to institutional differences and also makes the teachers to be adequately prepared for the type of questionnaires they are going to be subjected to. Though a larger sample scale could have been more indicative of the results, this study was the first attempt of its kind. The novelty of the idea compensates for the small sample size. The authors find an accepted descriptive, correlational statistical design to correspond to this kind of study. The questionnaires are created to show necessary data as far as the motives for the desired ends are concerned.
Results reported in meaningful terms
The reliability of coefficients was 0.78 for core perspective, 0.73 for classroom practices, and 0.76 for expected outcomes. It means that the obtained results were reliable although cultural differences play an important role in showing the differences. The results have also been depicted in easily comprehensible tabulated forms which describe the demographic details of the participants, mean values obtained for three instruments under study, and the correlational attributes within them. Errors due to cultural variations seem to be minimal as most respondents were female.
Subgroup analysis and authors discussion
The authors were cautious in the inclusion of subgroup analysis as the discussion in the study focused on the attitude of teachers towards inclusion to mainstream children with disabilities and the ways and means they adopt to overcome the obstacles encountered in teaching. It helps to avoid contractions. Sharing and assisting others were considered vital in promoting awareness about inclusion. The limitations in this study include the small number of participants as well as the environment and methodology which might have elicited subdued responses due to privacy concerns.
The authors do not identify parameters with no results or with negative results in this case.
Evidence in the study
The authors have used real-world data making the evidence of the study very strong. The authors describe all the instruments in detail as far as their historical origin and validity for this particular study are concerned.
The additional information that is identified is the use of Pearson to identify translate the effect size of the sample. The regression coefficient is also a part of the study as it is used to standardize and measure the effect size. It represents the dependent variable changes that are results of a standard deviation change in specific independent variables.
Kalyva, E., Gojkovic, D and Tsakiris V. (2007). Serbian Teachers’ Attitudes Towards Inclusion. International Journal Of Special Education.