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The concept of social cognitive theory (SCT) is known to start as the social learning theory (SLT), which was introduced by Canadian psychologist Albert Bandura in the 1960s. In 1986 it developed into SCT stating that learning occurred in a social context where reciprocal and dynamic interaction of a person, environment, and behavior took place. The theory includes six major concepts: reciprocal determinism, behavioral capability, observational learning, reinforcements, expectations, and self-efficacy.
When two or more concepts become related or joined together they transform into a proposition. Such propositions are called relational statements; they are usually helpful in understanding various theory assumptions. These assumptions are normally divided into the following: observing others, viewing learning as a behavior, goal setting, self-regulated learning, reinforcement, and punishment.
The literature was selected using the Google Scholar database. All the sources are closely related to the problem of alcohol addiction and, therefore, are included in the research. The years of publishing were set from 2013 to 2017. As to the choice of the keywords, those were selected by the topic requirements. The search results were received using the ‘social cognitive theory alcohol’ word combination. Journal articles were given priority in the matters of reference list formation.
Review of the Literature Table
|Author||Journal||Year Published||Journal Abstract||Target Population||Health Problem||Intervention||Setting||Selection Status|
|Best, D., Beckwith, M., Haslam, C., Alexander Haslam, S., Jetten, J., Mawson, E., & Lubman, D. I.||Addiction Research & Theory||2016||This article focuses attention on the addiction recovery model based on patients’ self-determination. According to the authors’ opinion, recovery is simply a transition of socially negotiated identities. The researcher also suggests that behavior change of sufferers needs to be socially negotiated and subject to social influence.||Patients of all ages suffering from alcohol abuse||Alcohol addiction||Descriptive||Clinic||The article will not be selected due to the absence of an experimental model|
|Champion, K. E., Newton, N. C., Barrett, E. L., & Teesson, M.||Drug and Alcohol Review||2013||This research identifies and describes the existing alcohol and drug prevention programs. The findings indicate that internet-based cognitive intervention programs show a clear tendency to reduce alcohol and drug use among adolescents. The method appears to be very promising in matters of addiction elimination.||Teachers, scholars, and parents||Use of alcohol among youth||Experimental||School||Selected|
|Des Rosiers, S. E., Schwartz, S. J., Zamboanga, B. L., Ham, L. S., & Huang, S.||Journal of Clinical Psychology||2013||The study uses a social cognitive conceptual framework to identify alcohol-related risk behaviors. The results show that acculturation orientations are closely correlated with alcohol-related risk outcomes. The researchers stress that negative expectancy valuations appear to be positively associated with the phenomenon of binge drinking.||Scholars, medical workers, rehabilitation center personnel||Use of alcohol among students||Correlational||Youth community||Will not be selected due to insufficient findings|
|Galanter, M.||The American Journal on Addictions||2014||The research focuses on changes in patients’ addiction-related behaviors and attitudes. The changes were investigated using the mechanisms of social and cognitive neuroscience. The author pays maximum attention to the models of self-schema development and the principles of value formation.||Scholars studying alcohol abuse and medical units involved in the process of addiction elimination||Alcohol addiction||Educational||Clinic||Will not be selected due to the absence of an experimental model|
|Gámez-Guadix, M., Calvete, E., Orue, I., & Las Hayas, C.||Addictive Behaviors||2015||This study is focused on the two pervasive problems of adolescence: problematic alcohol use and problematic Internet use. The findings show that deficient self-regulation preconditions increase in preferences for online interactions and alcohol abuse. The authors point out that adolescents are vulnerable targets for risk-related behavior and, therefore, require an outer control.||High-school teachers, parents, medical experts||Use of alcohol among youth||Educational||School||Will not be selected due to simultaneous focus on the two problems instead of one|
|Heydari, A., Dashtgard, A., & Moghadam, Z. E||Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research||2014||The researchers experimented with two groups of clients (with 30 people in the test group and 30 people in the control group). The intervention model for the test group was made based on Bandura’s social cognitive theory. The results demonstrated that the test group was more successful in quitting addictions due to the effectiveness of a chosen program.||Medical units, rehabilitation center workers||Alcohol and drug addiction||Experimental||Clinic||Selected|
|Wiers, R. W., Gladwin, T. E., Hofmann, W., Salemink, E., & Ridderinkhof, K. R.||Clinical Psychological Science||2013||The study sets forward the two goals: to change maladaptive cognitive motivational biases and to increase control over addiction reoccurrences. The authors discuss several critical issues and give suggestions regarding their resolving.||Clinicians, medical units, scholars studying the problem||Addiction related psychopathology||Descriptive||Home- and work-based||Will not be selected due to the absence of the experimental model|
Practical Implementation of the Social Cognitive Theory
In their article, Heydari, Dashtgard, and Moghadam, (2014) pay attention to the fact that addiction quitting has turned into a global issue, with the addiction reoccurrence rates reaching out 80%. The study aimed to investigate the effect of the social cognitive theory implementation on people willing to quit drug or alcohol addiction with the main focus on the recovery model (Best et al., 2016). All the examinees were tested at Imam Reza Hospital.
All in all, 60 clients participated in the experiment. A sufficient number of participants can be viewed as a strong side of the study. The lack of data collection tools, however, might be regarded as the main weakness of the research (data were measured using questionnaire only). An interventional procedure lasted for one month; data were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences using a specialized test.
The clients were randomly assigned to two groups (30 individuals in each). After the demographic data were gathered, all examinees completed the self-efficacy questionnaire. The test group was subject to the intervention based on the constructs of Bandura’s cognitive social theory, while the control group only received conventional treatment. After a while, the members of the test group admitted: “a change in their addiction-related attitudes and behaviors” (Galanter, 2014, p. 300).
The behavior change intervention was carried out during eight 60-90 minutes’ sessions according to the model steps. The first step involved an education need assessment and presenting the treatment content. The second step presupposed dividing clients into smaller groups from six to eight and engaging them in a group discussion, during which the knowledge about risk behaviors was shared. On the third stage, examinees were taught some of the problem-solving, decision-making, and self-projection skills that were meant to improve their motivational background (Wiers, Gladwin, Hofmann, Salemink, & Ridderinkhof, 2013). Finally, the fourth stage unveiled the key principles of family support. Family members were invited and thoroughly instructed as to how to arrange effective rehabilitation at home.
The research conducted by Champion, Newton, Barrett, and Teesson (2013) also focuses on the problem of addiction stating that “the use of alcohol and drugs amongst young people is a serious concern and the need for effective prevention is clear” (p. 115). The strong point of the research is that the authors use PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, PubMed, and other databases to develop a social cognitive model that is best suited for fighting the issue. 10 programs were chosen for task fulfillment and involved such activities as internet-based and CD-ROM behavior interventions. All of them were targeted at Australian teenagers between 14 and 19 years of age. Study quality was assessed using a validated tool for quality assessment of randomized controlled trials (Des Rosiers, Schwartz, Zamboanga, Ham, & Huang, 2013).
Regarding the findings, of the 10 programs “six achieved reductions in alcohol, cannabis, or tobacco use” (Champion et al., 2013). Two interventions showed a decrease in intention to use alcohol and the remaining two helped to significantly increase knowledge about drugs and alcohol. Deficient self-regulation played a central role in students’ intentions to quit their addictions (Gámez-Guadix, Calvete, Orue, & Las Hayas, 2015). Despite the fact the researchers used a small number of intervention programs, the model proved to be effective in fighting addiction problems.
Based on the findings of the two scholarly articles, one can conclude that the impact of SCT on one’s behavior is always tangible since the outcomes demonstrate a positive tendency to change the established situation. It is known that both models intervened at a psychological level to develop a negative attitude towards addiction. Regarding the limitations of using SCT, human factors such as the unwillingness to change habits and the absence of motivation to improve a situation might play a huge disservice in the matters of model implementation.
Nevertheless, medical establishments and rehabilitation centers should continue using social cognitive theory concepts for the problem of addiction to be eliminated. It is also recommended that these establishments cooperate directly with the scholars developing behavior change models. Cooperation of this kind would allow for fresh ideas to be implemented immediately.
Best, D., Beckwith, M., Haslam, C., Alexander Haslam, S., Jetten, J., Mawson, E., & Lubman, D. I. (2016). Overcoming alcohol and other drug addiction as a process of social identity transition: The Social Identity Model of Recovery (SIMOR). Addiction Research & Theory, 24(2), 111-123.
Champion, K. E., Newton, N. C., Barrett, E. L., & Teesson, M. (2013). A systematic review of school‐based alcohol and other drug prevention programs facilitated by computers or the Internet. Drug and Alcohol Review, 32(2), 115-123.
Des Rosiers, S. E., Schwartz, S. J., Zamboanga, B. L., Ham, L. S., & Huang, S. (2013). A cultural and social cognitive model of differences in acculturation orientations, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol‐related risk behaviors among Hispanic college students. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(4), 319-340.
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Galanter, M. (2014). Alcoholics anonymous and twelve‐step recovery: A model based on social and cognitive neuroscience. The American Journal on Addictions, 23(3), 300-307.
Gámez-Guadix, M., Calvete, E., Orue, I., & Las Hayas, C. (2015). Problematic Internet use and problematic alcohol use from the cognitive-behavioral model: A longitudinal study among adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 40, 109-114.
Heydari, A., Dashtgard, A., & Moghadam, Z. E. (2014). The effect of Bandura’s social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to addiction quitting clinics. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research, 19(1), 19-23.
Wiers, R. W., Gladwin, T. E., Hofmann, W., Salemink, E., & Ridderinkhof, K. R. (2013). Cognitive bias modification and cognitive control training in addiction and related psychopathology: Mechanisms, clinical perspectives, and ways forward. Clinical Psychological Science, 1(2), 192-212.