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Essentially, there are various attributes that have come up to complement societies not only through religious beliefs, but also through scientific interpretations targeting to control economies. In the sixteenth century, people relied on religious beliefs when making decisions regardless of scientific factors that influenced their social wellbeing (Tawney, 1926).
In essence, secularization refers to a transition in which a society that bases its structure on religion is established into a diverse nature incorporating secular and irreligious values. This essay will describe secularization with its rise and explain its significance in social sciences.
Establishment of new institutions, which relies on upcoming doctrines, was initiated and compared to the religious ones. Furthermore, this shift marked the initiation of secular states which served as aspects of the society. These states were governed by rules facilitating economic progress of the society.
This development of socialization is evident when there are logical explanations to events instead of religious ones. Also, this shift introduced diverse values of supporting actions of people from various perspectives such as political, economic, and social ways. Subsequently, the rational ways to support necessity of an action replaced most decisions made on basis of beliefs.
For instance, a person could state that war is against the will of God. However, there are parameters or logical explanations that determine whether a war is appropriate or not. This led to the rise of many disciplines to explain incidences in a way that all people could understand and agree.
Mathematics and sciences are among subjects that arose to give these explanations. In this way, people attained varying roles that targeted to improve the society socially, economically and religiously. Consequently, secularization was vital since it enhanced formation of the modern world.
Rise of Secularization
In 1648, the struggles of religion to retain powers of making decisions and define arising institutions ceased (Tawney, 1926). After the Treaty of Westphalia, there arose a war with desires to apply economic strategies in controlling nations (Tawney, 1926). These states were in war situations requiring mutual understanding that religion could not offer because people had distinct religious beliefs.
The law of nature demanded an independent community to guide negotiations of war which were later directed by Commonwealth. Political groups and governments were established to control various boundaries formed worldwide. These leadership groups retrieved most of their doctrines from ethics and religion.
England attained an internalized economic unity 2 to 3 centuries before France and Germany (Tawney, 1926). Moreover, it had established constitutional guidance, good location, and prosperous businesses which made it the best and earliest structured culture.
Its social attributes arose from churches to be incorporated into state economy. These attributes were manipulated to fit government systems which were directed economically. The state set an example to other societies which applied businesses, spiritual beliefs, and politics in their government systems. Therefore, the information spread to rulers who strived to reach the achievements made by England (Tawney, 1926).
When business institutions were developed in most parts of developed countries, the governments relied on profits or taxes received from businesses for stable progress. The stabilization brought people together into economic boundaries termed as nations/countries.
Activities and institutions to unite people were formed including schools, national languages, government leadership, and religion systems among others.
Significance to Social Sciences
Secularization was the foundation of social sciences where various societies or groups of interactions were formed. For instance, nations were formed to interact and assist each other in economic progress. If secularization did not occur, the bases of social sciences would be religion alone.
Therefore, it was vital in the formation of logistics and disciplines to argue incidences through ways that are acceptable to most people. Furthermore, it led to formation of disciplines such as law, sociology, and anthropology among others. It introduced rational ways of making decisions when needed because beliefs could be manipulated by individuals for personal gains.
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In the modern world, right and wrong is subject to question depending on the occurrence of an incident. For instance, murder could be punished by God according to the religious beliefs. However, laws are implemented to warrant justice by punishing people who perform such acts.
Subsequently, the attempts to perform these acts are discouraged leading to reduction of crimes. Finally, the part played by religion is noted and respected for allowing the world to reach modern social status where people are sociable and interactive.
The use of intellectual thinking is vital in life. Although religion plays practical roles in the determination of right and wrong, it must be known that each person is subject to trial because truth can only be identified through logical thinking.
Secularization enabled these logics to work in the modern world and prevented the formation of a globe whose decisions are based on beliefs alone. In this way, people are capable of learning and acting in accordance to the rules that have been set as the guidelines.
Tawney, R. (1926). Religion and the rise of capitalism; a historical study. New York: Harcourt, Brace and Co.