Telecommunication networks can vary in scale and structure but usually employ a set of core components and technologies required for their successful operation. A computer network is several computers connected through hardware and software solutions. Usually, it involves client computers being connected to a server computer. This connection uses the network operating system to distribute communications among the computers on the network.
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Components called “switches” or “hubs” are used to simplify the connection and distribution of information between computers. Hubs send data to all computers on the network, while switches can filter it to specific computers. Also, routers can be used to connect multiple networks. A new approach called Software-defined networking can be used to simplify network configurations by using one central program.
Technologies that networks use include client/server computing, packet switching, and TCP/IP. Client/server computing is a model of data processing where one dedicated computer is used to set the rules of communication between other computers on the network.
Packet switching is one of the most important electronic communication technologies. It allows the user to transfer large amounts of data by dividing it into small packets that are then sent and reassembled at the destination computer. TCP/IP consists of two protocols created to standardize communication between different types of computers. Its name means Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. TCP controls the movement of data, while IP controls its delivery, disassembly, and reassembly.