Which side of Saturn’s moon “Iapetus” should be hotter?
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Saturn’s moon “Iapetus” has a “very bright” and another “very dark” side. Although the two sides receive an equal amount of heat from the sun, the darker side should be hotter because of its “low reflectivity”. Darker surfaces absorb much heat than brighter surfaces. The moon’s slow rotation makes heating more effective.
How would the Earth’s temperature structure change in each of the following cases?
If the sun was producing no X-rays
The sun emits electromagnetic radiation. The radiations warm the earth’s surface. If the sun did not produce X-rays, the earth would be a frozen planet. However, these X-rays have short wavelengths. This explains why such rays do not play any significant role in the earth’s temperatures. The earth’s temperature graphs would therefore remain the same if the sun was producing no X-rays.
If the sun was producing more ultraviolet light
One thing to understand is that ultraviolet rays do not produce heat. However, if the sun produced more ultraviolet light, this would change the earth’s temperature structure. Ultraviolet radiation is invisible but closely linked to increased global temperatures. The earth’s temperature graph would show an increase in global temperatures if the sun produced more ultraviolet light.
Imagine a newly discovered planet with the following characteristics
0.8 earth mass planet, 1 AU from its star, N2 (70%) and CO2 (28%), 3 bars H2O oceans, and rotates every 8 hours.
Should it have a troposphere?
The characteristics of the newly discovered planet indicate that it is an “earth-like planet”. The planet is within its star’s habitable location. It also has surface water in liquid form. That being the case, the newly discovered planet should have a troposphere. This layer occurs above the planet’s surface. The planet will have an atmosphere because of the favorable temperature, gravity, and composition of atmospheric gases.
Should it have a stratosphere?
This planet should also have a stratosphere. The planet is similar to planet earth and will have an ozone layer. This is also determined by the planet’s proximity to the sun.
Will it has more or fewer climate zones than earth?
From the provided information, it is notable that the planet will have fewer climate zones than planet earth. This is because it has a lower mass compared to the earth, and completes its rotation within 8 hours. The planet’s small size and presence of three atmospheric gases will result in fewer climatic zones compared to planet earth.
Can clouds and hurricanes form?
The planet has three bars of H2O. This means that the sun can heat the sea thus resulting in evaporation. The water evaporates into the atmosphere. The planet is closer to the sun thus making evaporation possible. This results in the formation of water vapor but cannot eventually develop into clouds or hurricanes. The presence of 28% carbon dioxide (CO2) makes it impossible for heat to escape thus keeping the water in vapor form.
Which of the planets below is likely to have an atmosphere (why)? How would the atmosphere form?
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- Mass: 20 Earth masses, Distance: 20 AU
- Mass: 0.02 Earth masses, Distance: 1 AU
From these two planets, it is agreeable that the first planet will most probably have an atmosphere, unlike the second planet. The presence of an atmosphere depends mainly on temperature, gravity, and atmospheric compositions. The planet is massive, something that increases its “escape speed”. As well, the planet is 20 AU from the sun thus keeping its atmosphere cooler. The second planet, on the other hand, has a reduced gravity thus increasing its “escape speed”. This makes it impossible for the planet to have an atmosphere. The planet’s gravity is weak to retain the molecules and atoms in the atmosphere. The first planet will mostly have helium (He) and hydrogen (H) in its atmosphere because the gases cannot escape easily.