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The Main Branches of Philosophy Essay

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Updated: Dec 16th, 2021

The term philosophy can not be described or explained to precision; as the subject matter and coverage of the field is so controversial and complex that different philosophers and academicians have dissimilar views of the character, methodology and range of philosophy. However from a general explanation that covers the different ideas; Philosophy is the science or study of the common, fundamental problems and issues regarding the subject of topics like existence, values, the mind, facts, language and rationale. An example of topic studied under this discipline is the question of whether there is the being of a supreme God. The discipline of philosophy is illustrious from other studies of responding to essential topics like religion, arts and myths in that; it makes use of a decisive methodical view founded on lucid argument in addressing the matters of essential concern. The term philosophy is sourced from the Greek name ‘Philosophia’; meaning the ‘love for knowledge’ under common usage. Within the field of philosophy there are sub-divisions of the field that include; Eastern and western philosophy; theoretical formations covered under philosophy like those of rationalism versus empiricism; morals and political science; and the applied branch of philosophy (Velasquez 2011, 23-235).

The first main branch within the field of philosophy is the concept of human nature which is the pursuit to improve the interdisciplinary exploration of the social, environmental and biological factors and variations of the members of the human race. The rationale for studying human nature is to improve and understand the functional unity between these factors of humans; which are mutually and unendingly interactive. Under this branch the mind-body problem is addressed; where the argument is that there are mental and physical perceptions like pain and mass respectfully. The problem to be addressed under this area is that there is need for a unified understanding of the world; by making an effective relation of the two and how both fit into the general understanding of the world. Under this branch the other issue to be addressed is that there is no enduring self, as humans are constantly changing and growing in the instinctive view of the world and ourselves. This branch further addresses the question whether humans are independent and self sufficient; arguing that the individual is ruled by his body, mind and senses, while their physical limitations make them dependent on other people and things he is attracted to(Velasquez 2011, 23-235).

The other main branch is the area of reality and being which deals with what is real; and what constitutes reality either the material or the nonmaterial aspects of the environment and the general human experience. This branch further deals with the reality in pragmatism based on the argument that; anything that is real should work out satisfactorily and give practical results. The branch further deals with the question of reality and ‘logical positivism’; which contend that human knowledge should be based on rational and methodical foundations. The branch further addresses the question of ‘antirealism’ which is used to explain the position involving the denial of objective realities. This branch further covers the concern of the successor of idealism and pragmatism as evident from the American history; that pragmatic and idealistic constructions assume a broader significance than they intrinsically should. This branch further concerns itself with existentialism and phenomenology, which is of the idea that the aspects of human life should be carefully explained as lived. Other aspects of knowledge covered under this branch are the reality of freedom and time which form a major aspect of the human experience (Velasquez 2011, 23-235).

The other main branch of philosophy is the philosophy of God; which seeks to establish the significance of religion, answer the question as to whether God does exist; as well as addressing the atheist antagonist views about religion and God. This branch seeks to address the question of the problem of evil, which generally contends that God cannot exist together with evil. The branch further explains the experiences and beliefs of the traditional religious observances; and the non-traditional spiritual experiences associated with God and religion (Velasquez 2011, 23-235).

The other main area of concern under philosophy is ‘the source of knowledge’; where one of the concerns to be addressed is why knowledge is a problem and an area human kind always engages itself in. The area further questions whether reason is the cause and source of the driving force, which makes humans engage in the pursuit for knowledge. Under this branch the other area of concern is whether the common senses bestowed on humans can account for all the knowledge that is needed, and which should be accounted for. The other question whose answer is sought under this branch of philosophy is whether the informed mind shapes the world; and whether science forms a credible source of knowledge and if it is a credible source of knowledge and information (Velasquez 2011, 23-235).

Another major branch of philosophy is truth; which in real usage means the instance of being the real case, being in agreement to a given reality or detail, fidelity or the standard nature of issues. Under this main branch of philosophy truth, knowledge and their rationalization is sought; where the view is explaining what the truth really is, what it constitutes and what its origins are. The other question addressed under this branch of philosophy is whether science is a source of the information that amounts to knowledge; whether interpretations are applicable and true; and if they should be considered a worthy source of command in knowledge (Velasquez 2011, 23-235).

Another major branch of philosophy is Ethics; where the question is what qualifies to be referred to as ethics; and what really constitutes ethics or should be considered as ethics. One of the questions to be answered under this branch is whether ethics is relative on culture, environment or different groups of people; and whether it is a universal application without any measure of variation. The other question to be addressed under this branch is whether the consequences that result from an action make it right or wrong, or if they affect the perception of its either being wrong or right. Another question under this area of study is whether rules define the morality levels of cases or actions; whether ethics are founded on disposition and if they can be used as a tool in resolving the areas and questions of dilemma to do with morality. With regard to moral responsibility the concept of ethics is addressed to show how the two are related or linked (Velasquez 2011, 23-235).

The other major branch of philosophy is social and political philosophy; where social and political philosophy is defined in depth giving a rationale or justification for the state, and the role the two plays under the major concept of politics and social wellbeing. The other area of question dealt with is the limits of the state, which include citizenship and policy formation models (Velasquez 2011, 23-235).

The other main branch of philosophy is the meaning of life; where the questions of whether life has a meaning from the different perspectives that include the theistic view and the significance of human progress in general. This branch further addresses the Nihilist refusal of the meaning of life; which contends that life is devoid of objective significance, reason or inherent worth. This branch addresses the concept of life as a self-chosen obligation, which is constructed by each individual on a personalized basis (Velasquez 2011, 23-235).

Bibliography

Velasquez, Manuel. Philosophy: A text with readings, Eleventh edition. California: Cengage Education centre, 2011: 23-235

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