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The Rise of the Qing Dynasty at 1630-1800 Essay

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Updated: Sep 30th, 2021

Introduction

The Qing Dynasty is also known as the Manchu Dynasty. This historical dynasty was recorded to be the last ruling dynasty of China. Its span extended from 1644 to 1912. This was the dynasty that was found by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro. This area, in the modern age, is known to be northeast China (Manchuria). Originally it was known to be the Jin Dynasty, but later in 1636, it changed its name to “Qing”. The term Qing stands for “clear” or “pellucid”. It was in 1644 the act of expansion captured Beijing. By 1646, it was well established as the ruling domain for China proper.

Consolidation of Manchu rule

The maintenance of power led by the Manchu rule was all implemented through Queue Order from 1622 to 1625 and the Queue order of the year 1645.

‘The four ministers—Sonin, Ebilun, Suksaha, and Oboi—were chosen for their long service to the emperor, but also to counteract each others’ influences.’ Jonathan Spence, 1991.

The Qing dynasty was initiated well by Hung Taiji in 1634. It was so strong that it could create its own artillery corps. During the period that followed after 1635, the transformation came when Manchu’s Mongolian allies got incorporated into a separate Banner hierarchy. This was under the domain of the Manchu command. Hong Taiji took the flag a little further and invaded Korea in 1636. This was his second invasion and subsequently created the first (two) Han Banners in 1637. By 1642 the increase in the banners reached 8 and the dynasty was growing at a great pace. The lead was further refined by military reforms that enabled Hung Taiji to defeat Ming. This was a whole series of battles that lasted from 1640 to 1642. This was for winning over the territories of Songshan and Jingzhou. As the ruler of the Qing dynasty attains victory in this series the prominence got predominant and the dynasty grew much stronger than what it was earlier.

There were lots of fundamental changes that came in Hung Taiji’s reign. He was the exponent of many Han Chinese subjects. As the reign gets shifted to Nurhaci, it was been observed that Hung Taiji, incorporated for Jurchen “nation”. There were many such changes that were done in this dynasty and that increased Hung Taiji’s power base. This was also the chief political reason for the military reduction in terms of banners that were not under his personal control. Under all these speculative applications of policies, the dynasty got centralized power. This was officially incorporated into the office of the Khan. This in turn helped in the prevention of the long run domain of preventing the Jurchen federation. The reign had a dominant influence over its domain. The domain was so strong that there was the claiming for the Mandate of Heaven. This was through the participation of Pine, Plum, and Cranes in the year 1759 AD. This was further initiated under the reign of Shen Quan (1682–1760). It is here that the Hanging scroll, along with ink and color on silk became some of the symbolic representation of this dominance.

After the death of Hung Taiji in 1643 the dynasty was in trouble as it was not having any heir. As a matter of fact, Jurchen used to elect leaders through a council of nobles; it was hard for Qing to have an heir. It was continuous trouble till the initiation was led by Emperor Kangxi. Though there were contenders like those of Hung Taiji’s eldest son Hooge added to his agnate half-brother Dorgon, the support came along for Hung Taiji’s Fulin. At the age of five, he was announced Emperor Shunzhi. The empire was then run under the supervision of Dorgon as regent for the Manchu nation. Political uncertainty in the Qing dynasty however brought in a succession dispute. There were oppositions related to the declaration of a 5-year boy as the heir. Though there were lots of rebels and oppositions yet by 1644 Li Zicheng was defeated and the Manchus captured Beijing. As declared by Pei-Kai Cheng and Michael Lestz with Jonathan Spence, (1999),

‘It was the Emperor Shunzhi who was destined and recognized as the “Son of Heaven”. Jonathan Spence, 1991.

The progression got led to the assassination of Ming pretender, Prince Gui by Wu and brought back Yunnan in 1662.

Reason, Measures, and Tactics of Qing Dynasty

The Shunzhi’s reign was initially under the dominance of regent prince Dorgon for a span of 7 years. Manchu princes were consequently demoted and some were imprisoned. This was a mode of ruling led by the Qing dynasty to remain in the dominance of its ruler. This is the reason that the role played by Dorgon was very vital in the rise of the Qing dynasty. His strategies were to keep the Ming capital and bureaucracy intact. This was the positive thing of this dynasty that helped it grow so big in comparison to another dynasty.

Jonathan Spence, (1991) demonstrates that after Dorgon Manchu Qing followed the procedure led by him and maintained its position. These were the extremely well-knitted methods to continue with the rule. However Manchu came up with a Queue order. Being a minority ruling class they followed Queue Order to get the grounding for the ethnicities into submission. The Queue Order was very effective from 1622 to 1625, till the Han Chinese in Liaodong were all in opposition to it. Qing government was very active in taking action and bringing an end to this rebel killed 500,000 people. This was followed by the implemented difference between Chinese and Manchus and led to the restrictions for the intermarriage between Han Chinese and Manchus. Queue order of 1645 came into further exposition and as a rule to it; Qing Prince Dorgon issued subsequent decree to this and there was again a huge control to its.

Rule of Kangxi Emperor

Literary prosecution was one of the major subjects of concern for Qing dynasty. Literary persecution (1) 1753, was toured by Jiangnan; funded by local people. The 1755 and 1758 too had the influential effect of literary prosecution were also of great significance in the terms of the rise of Qing Dynasty. Kangxi Emperor, from 1662–1722 is the longest reign among all the Chinese Emperor and was the beginning of ’Kang-Qian Golden Age’. There was a series of military campaigns from 1683; that was absolutely for the purpose of dominating Tibet and Taiwan. This spread for Dzungars and then to the regions under Russia. To get rid of the south rebels he married his daughter to Mongol Khan Gordhunt. The series was well followed by Zheng Keshuang, the predominant ruler and grandson of Koxinga. During this period the Qing Dynasty was having its golden domain from social, political, economic and military power. Thus it proceeded further and by 1800 the rise was slowly shifted to demolition of the same.

Yongzheng and Qianlong emperors

The reigns as has been initiated by the Yongzheng Emperor (1723 to 1735) and successor Qianlong Emperor (1735–1796) were the zenith of Qing dynasty. The rule of Qing dynasty during this period was over 13 million square kilometers.

Yongzheng’s reign had the imperial power of the ultimate height and it was very remarkable in Chinese history. The area of Northwest was almost conquered in a great way. It was during this phase that toughened stance got incorporated for the corrupt officials. There was also the creation of a Grand Council, being the de facto Cabinet for the upcoming Qing dynasty.

After the death of Yongzheng Emperor in the year 1735, he was succeeded by Prince Bao at 24 years of age and was declared as Qianlong Emperor. Qianlong was an efficient general and after being the king he took the initiative for his military in all the campaigns near the areas of Xinjiang and more specifically Mongolia. He was also very successful in bringing an end to the revolts of Sichuan and all the areas that were under the territorial dominance of southern China. The rule was at its pick. However the rebellion of White Lotus Society (1796) against Qing government continued for a long term of 8 years. It was continuous uproar till 1804. He rebel was so strong that it successfully shattered all the military strategies of Manchus.

Conclusion

Eventually it can be concluded that Qing Dynasty had the hold over the entire country in 1683. The Qing Dynasty adopted most of the rituals from Chinese culture. It grew with all its strength and was very dominant as a ruling dynasty. It had a strong reign that eventually got weakened during the 1800. As its military power became weak it started facing lots of international pressure and massive social uproars.

References

Jonathan Spence, 1991, The Search for Modern China, new York and London: W. W. Norton.

Pei-Kai Cheng and Michael Lestz with Jonathan spence, (1999), The search for Modern china, A Documentary collection, new York and London: W. W. Norton.

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IvyPanda. (2021) 'The Rise of the Qing Dynasty at 1630-1800'. 30 September.

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