Background of the Study
Based on the work of Lawy & Tedder (2012) which examined the evolution of teaching and training methods through a variety of educational institutions, it was seen that the process of development necessitates not only the need to provide teachers with the necessary tools in order to develop their own teaching styles but it also requires the identification of particular strengths and weaknesses within the educational institution providing the lessons (Lawy & Tedder, 2012). The reason behind this is quite simple, no matter how complex, elaborate or technical a particular educational institution makes its lessons out to be the fact remains that it all boils down to the teaching staff and how the lessons are implemented that makes a difference between students that have actually internalized the lessons and can succinctly apply them with only a modicum of assistance as compared to those who were barely able to understand the lessons at all and cannot apply them without considerable assistance (Bain, 2012). Such a case is particularly important in the case of EFL (English as a Foreign Language) institutions that are training the next generation of instructors for local schools, corporations and training companies (Albina, 2012) (Saunders, 2012).
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One of the ways in which educational institutions have attempted to address such concerns involving the identification of specific traits and skills that a teacher should focus on in order to improve the quality of the lessons provided is to institute a yearly feedback process wherein students evaluate the overall ability of teachers to succinctly and effectively teach the lessons that they specialize in (Hegender, 2010). The end result of such processes is usually the teacher focusing on identified weaknesses and strengths in order to improve their overall skills and be able to teach at a level that results in better internalization of lessons on the part of students. It is based on this that a similar process of evaluation will be implemented in the English Language Institute of King Abdulaziz University (Brown, 2012). The reason behind the implementation of this process at the University is twofold. The first reason is to address the concerns of students regarding the quality of the lessons provided to them while the second reason is to ensure that the quality of the EFL program that the university prides itself on is maintained at a level that is commensurate with international standards of teaching. It is expected that through an identification of the top skills of the course coordinators within the institution as well as their inherent weaknesses a program can be devised wherein strengths can be enhanced and weaknesses addressed which would enable the provision of better learning programs and lessons for the EFL instructors at the institute.
What are the top skills needed in coordinators based on their evaluation by EFL instructors at The English Language Institute of King Abdulaziz University?
This main question will be analyzed through the answer to the following sub-questions:
- What are the greatest areas of strengths in the performance of EFL coordinators in terms of the general and mentoring skills?
- What are the greatest areas of weaknesses in the performance of EFL coordinators in terms of the general and mentoring skills?
The research aims at discovering what are top skills needed by coordinators based on the point of view of the instructors they are under. According to the initial findings of the researcher, all top skills should be considered during the recruitment process of course coordinators in EFL institutes and during the planning of professional development activities for these coordinators. Further elaboration on this will be conducted within the literature review of the study.
It must be noted that the time constraint on this study only allows structured questionnaire distribution with an unrepresentative number of people, and also a limited flexibility when conducting the in distributing the questionnaires. A general overview from multiple institutions of training aside from the English Language Institute of King Abdulaziz University is therefore not possible.
Overall, the data collection process is expected to be uneventful; however, some challenges may be present in collecting training and development data over the past 10 years due to the inherent limitations in data collection procedures. Such issues though can be resolved through access to online academic resources such as EBSCO hub, Academic Search Premier, Master FILE Premier, Newspaper Source Plus, and AP News Monitor Collection. Other databases consulted for this topic include Emerald Insight, Academic OneFile, Expanded Academic ASAP, General OneFile, Global Issues in Context, Newsstand, Opposing Views in Context, Popular Magazines, and World History in Context as well as other such online databases which should have the necessary information. Relevant books were also included in the review. Furthermore websites such as The Economist.com have several online articles which contain snippets of information that should be able to help steer the study towards acquiring the necessary sources needed to justify asserted arguments.
Strengths and Weaknesses of the Study
Overall, the main weakness of this study is in its reliance on questionnaire results as the primary source of data in order to determine the general opinion of instructors regarding what skills should course coordinators focus their efforts on. There is always the possibility that the responses could be false or that the instructor in question really does not know anything at all regarding the various methods involving skill improvement that will be indicated by the researcher. While this can be resolved by backing up the data with relevant literature it still presents itself as a problem that cannot be easily remedied.
Significance of the Study
The English language coordinator is a person who has a passion for leadership, assistance, and positive communication to hold responsibility for the supervision and coordination of language instructors. Such an important role lays itself to be the steering wheel of important responsibilities in EFL institutes around the world. This research presents full descriptions of the support and administrative skills required from coordinators of EFL courses, and focuses on the top and greatest areas of strengths to be considered and at the same time draws conclusions on the greatest areas of weaknesses to be fixed and enhanced in the coordinator’s performance. The findings of this paper will contribute to the development and enhancement of proper coordination systems in EFL programs in terms of multiple work skills needed from an EFL course coordinator and through the eyes of instructors being coordinated.
Reliability and Validity
Reliability in any research process implies that the same set of data would have been collected each time in repeat examinations of the same variable or phenomenon, otherwise referred to as consistency of measurement. To realize reliability of the study findings, the researcher will certify that items incorporated in the questionnaire will only capture data that are of interest to the broader objectives of the study. The range of measurement of the surveys will also be adjusted upwards to enhance internal consistency of the study findings. Various research study guides have determined that validity is a measurement that is used to describe a measure or instrument that correctly reflects the variable or phenomena it is intended to evaluate, thus reinforcing the conclusions, assumptions, and propositions made from the analysis of data. Internal validity, which denotes the soundness of a study or investigation, will be achieved through the establishment of a framework for the application of effective sampling techniques and employing a validated and reliable survey schedule for the propose of data collection.
Introduction to Literature
This section reviews and evaluates literature and theories on what are necessary skills that English language coordinators from the English Language Institute of King Abdulaziz University should focus on. The literature in this review is drawn from the following EBSCO databases: Academic Search Premier, MasterFILE Premier, Global Events, ERIC, and Professional Development Collection. Other sources of information utilized in this section are drawn from various online resources such as the websites of Ernst & Young and Siemens, The Economist.com as well as various news media websites. Keywords used either individually or in conjunction include: training, development, coordinators, skill sets, and improvement.
Impacts of training and learning on teachers/coordinators within Educational Institutions
Studies have shown that there are numerous ways in which training and learning in an organization impacts the bottom line. Laker & Powell (2011) notes that training and learning in an organization helps to cascade the entire strategies used to learn an organization (Laker & Powell, 2011). In this case, without training and learning, it becomes very difficult to implement and develop new strategies in an organization. Consequently, Miltenberger (2009) elucidates that the performance and end results in an organization are subject to skills and knowledge gained through training (Miltenberger, 2009). Arguably, it is definite that the two processes help to identify critical issues that are vital in organizations. Whenever teachers learn new strategies, they are able to exercise explicit alignment to achieve objectives and relevant goals in an organization (Dobbins, 2010). As a result stake holders in any educational institution become strategy driven, a factor that increases the benefits derived in the overall activities (Singh et al., 2004).
In line with this, training in the current century has been regarded as a crucial tool of enhancing educational activities (Singh et al., 2004). To some extent, the kind of training given to teachers in a school helps to predict the outcomes of how the school is ranked and how such teachers fair within a normal teaching environment. Once trained the article “Employer champions promote basic-skills training (2003)” highlights that teachers are expected to depict a certain degree of progress in helping the organization make attractive returns in its investments (Employer champions promote basic-skills training, 2003). Moreover, learning helps, to achieve both long-term and short term objectives with ease. Nevertheless, studies have shown that a lot of educational institutions decline to offer learning and training services to teachers since they take much time before positive results can be realized (Bathmaker, 2007). In this case, these activities are often ignored and time that could have been spared is used as an upfront method to increase organizational performance (Brierley, 2005). A critical evaluation has revealed that educational institutions that offer training and learning services to teachers and coordinators have a higher success rate as compared to those who choose to ignore to utilize such a strategy (Twentyman, Jensen, & Kloss, 1978). Therefore, one can deduce that these practices have a positive cost benefit ratio irrespective of the expenses incurred (Bassi & McMurrer 1998).
Research has revealed that learning is an investment that is directly supported through training (Shechtman, 2005). McCombs (1984 ) presents an assumption that through learning and training processes, myriad individuals get to understand and analyze various structures within their current realm of education (McCombs, 1984). Furthermore, they get to comply with the authority, values, culture, and customs, decision-making and staffing of their organization which in turn helps them to better understand the needs of their students (Grant, 2007). There are other added values that are experienced by teachers/coordinators once they undergo additional training. For instance, Doo (2006) notes that teachers benefit from career development, succession planning, performance management, budgeting and informed thinking (Doo, 2006). According to Mathieu & Leonard (1987) these activities aids individuals to reinforce desired output and set boundaries without the need of being supervised (Mathieu & Leonard, 1987). From a scholarly approach, Lepkowski (2009) analyzed that some of the leading educational institutions are at the forefront in terms of investigating and utilizing diverse modalities to train and enhance the learning programs of their teachers and coordinators (Lepkowski, 2009). These learning institutions ensure that teachers get the appropriate knowledge and skills at the right time, manner, place and cost (Wright, 1984). Some of the notable modalities include classrooms and training stations. During the learning and training sessions workers get an opportunity to practice role play, blended learning and technology applications (Myers, 1992). Recently, advancement of technology has enhanced distance learning where employees train and learn at through e-learning modalities (Fraser & Phillips, 1980). Having driven the skills and knowledge through diverse channels helps the organization to match a teacher’s skills with anticipated benefits.
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Training and learning in contemporary educational institutions helps to capitalize on an employees’ ability and prospective through shared accountability. Labarca (1998) argues that competent organizations are those that aim at tapping into the potential and ability of employees (Labarca, 1998). This is done through self-directed learning and training programs. In the long run, employees get an opportunity to identify their personal needs hence create their own learning plans (Smith et al., 2004). Moreover, having identified their strength and weaknesses, they are able to seek available opportunities to presuppose relevant knowledge and skills that will help them cope with external and internal environment in their respective teaching environments (Rohsenow et al., 2001).
From a careful review of relevant literature on the topic, It can be seen that every organization should experience the transferability of acquaintance and skills back to the organization (Smith et al., 2004). This is one of the key factors that determine whether training programs are relevant in an educational institution. Timing of training activities and impacting of relevant content to teachers boosts their appropriateness and quality of their skill. This also helps them to maintain and acquire new skills and knowledge (Foreign Language Skills Training Programmes, 1991). This is a sure guarantee of a university’s future success. From a theoretical perspective, it is worth noting that learning and training should be exercise regularly and designed to perform specific functions aligned to the needs in an organization. Koch (2007) concurs with this idea as he argues that continuous learning process acts as a drive to positive change in behavior, habits and culture within a school or university (Koch, 2007).
Training and development and the weak selection process within an organization
Advanced studies have illustrated that training and development can be used to cure weak selection process within schools and universities. A careful review of literature conducted by Leigh, Stewart & Mallios (2006) to examine the benefits of training after selecting teachers/coordinators has revealed that this process is crucial in managing human resources (Leigh, Stewart & Mallios, 2006). As a matter of fact, training does not only improve financial outcomes and performance but also influence performance intensity by human resources. In line with this, development in this context entails irreversible improvement of knowledge and skills within a school’s workforce (Akhtar & Akbar, 2011). Just like training, development in work place has become increasingly important in boosting the performance of teachers/coordinators that are hired to work without having the appropriate skills.
In line with this, research has revealed that numerous organizations lack competent strategies of recruiting teachers/coordinators for employment. Consequently, they end up using weak selection criteria to recruit employees, a factor that calls for the need to establish training and development programs to boost their skills (O’Sullivan et al., 2008). Additionally, most organizations use a single strategy such as intelligence quotient criterion to select potential teachers/coordinators (O’Sullivan et al., 2008). Ferney (1990) acknowledges that single selection method is subject to numerous errors where training and development act as buffer to overcome resultant weaknesses (Ferney, 1990). Barrett (2011) asserts that one of the notable benefit of overcoming weak selection through training and development is that they upgrade skills and as a result bring about positive change (Barrett, 2011).
According to Nurden (2007)training is an essential tool that is used in an organization to equip teachers/coordinators with work-oriented skills. (Nurden, 2007) Most coordinators recruited to work in organization experience a certain shortage of skills despite the fact that they passed the recruitment test. Moreover, most of them gain certain skills through traditional training which as a result creates a distinct disparity between what they know and the contemporary working conditions they are now present in (Grossman, 2012). It must also be noted that it is deceitful for an organization to recruit workers on the merit of their academic credentials (Ripley, 2012). This is due to the facts that, majority of them tend to forget concepts learnt in schools and hence experience stagnation in their personal development. Furthermore, skills acquired in the past tend to become obsolete especially in a situation where they are not put into practice frequently (Ripley, 2012).
Rapp (2012) writes that some teachers/coordinators might possess basic skills but do not have adequate experience. In line with this, some organizations desperately recruit teachers/coordinators who are willing to work for them whereas those with competent skills opt to occupy high positions in other organization (Rapp (2012). Out of desperation such organization are compelled to establish training and development programs which will help to sharpen worker’s skills, impact appropriate values and foster specialization (Weshah & Tomok, 2011)In the event of recruiting workers to work in an organization, some of them lack the self-will to execute numerous activities due to individual differences (Gallant & Mayer, 2012). Training helps to liberate new teachers/coordinators from unworthy cultural assumptions and motivate them to participate in various activities
(Ucar, 2012). Organizations often face great pressure trying to change teachers/coordinators values, opinions and beliefs. This has largely been attributed by selecting workers top work on the firm without putting in place the ethical considerations
(Guide to Teacher Training Programs, 2012). It is based on this that it can be stated that training contributes towards holistic personal development and satisfaction within a working environment.
Baker-Henningham (2011) point out that there is no genuine selection criterion for recruiting teachers/coordinators in an organization (Baker-Henningham, 2011). This is due to the fact that the notable strategies used do not consider the fact that human beings have got different abilities despite the similarities in their assessment results. Baker-Henningham (2011) highlights that there are hidden abilities that cannot be identified through use of selection standards. For instance, there are aspects such as behavior, ethics, mentality, morals and determinations that cannot be evaluated through some standards Baker-Henningham (2011). This fact proves that all modes of recruitment are weak and hence intervention measures should be made to overcome impending bias. Unlike recruitment that is restricted to specific attributes, training and development processes are diverse making it possible to address personal issues. Eventually, these processes increase a teachers/coordinator’s confidence, esteem, self-control, understanding, motivation and interpersonal skills (Carlson et al., 2011).
From a careful analysis of literature on the subject, it can be seen that most organizations select employees based on their fields of specialization. Nevertheless, due to diverse changes in organizations, there is need for an individual to have multiple skills in order to execute services in more than three posts. Therefore, training and developments enhance a multidimensional ability to perform diverse duties, a factor that has a lot of competitive advantaged for organizational performance. Ajmal et al. (2010) admit that what makes people valuable and effective in an organization is their inherent altitude which can be shaped positively through training (Ajmal et al., 2010). There are numerous challenges faced by organizations trying to assimilate teachers/coordinators with diverse mindsets. Aspects related to emotional maturity, morals and confidence needs significant amounts of training and development which extends far beyond concepts learnt in classroom (Ajmal et al., 2010)
An empirical review of literature conducted by Cuddapah (2012) revealed that performance of a teachers/coordinators is as a result of his/her ability and motivation. Personal aptitude can only be elevated by training and developing available resources by the organization (Cuddapah, 2012). Organizations should develop the desires commitment and motivation to train and enhance development of teachers/coordinators. This will help them to cover up their weaknesses especially in cases where the recruitment process that was carried out did not match appropriately with their skills. Koç (2012) notes that certain organizations are desperate for human resources and this makes them more likely to employ nearly anyone that applies (Koç, 2012). This can be devastating and challenging in terms of performance management. Therefore, based on what has been stated so far, minor deficiencies and errors can be eradicated through training. Other than weak selection methods, there are other factors that contribute to poor performance (Chesley, 2012). Therefore, before employees embark on training and development processes, there is a need to diagnose these factors.
Strategies to Implement to Resolve Identified Weaknesses
Mentoring in the case of job satisfaction involves guiding an employee via either a team leader or an adjunct employee that is willing to “take them under their wing” so speak in order to help adjust to the various aspects of the job, teach them how to do it well and guide them as they advance. The advantage of this particular method is that it eliminates the dissatisfaction employees have with a job by enabling them to see “the bigger picture” and have them develop a development plan from which they can ascertain what they want out of their current job. It must be noted though that while this method is effective it hinges on the fact that the mentor will actually have time to address and guide the concerns of the person that he/she is mentoring. In instances where there is sporadic mentorship what often occurs is that employees fall back into old habits and job dissatisfaction occurs as a direct result. What must be understood is that mentorship which is a benefit is not as effective as a process/program instilled by a company that creates the necessary self-motivated interested within an employee and as such should not be considered 100% effective. It must also be noted that due to the size of certain organizations mentoring is at times not feasible and as such is limited because of this.
Continuous Training Development Programs
When it comes to continuous training development programs it is interesting to note that researchers such as Perry (2012), indicate that by continuing to develop employees in order for them to accomplish multiple different tasks actually results in a greater degree of job satisfaction since it takes away factors related to repetitious actions that actually cause job dissatisfaction (Perry, 2012). From the perspective of Jones (2012), an employee actually loses satisfaction with their job over time unless some degree of variability is included in order to make the job more interesting (Jones, 2012). For example, various studies in psychology that have attempted to use economic theories as a means of explaining certain types of human behavior state that a job can be construed as being similar to the concept of marginal utility wherein the more you consume a particular product the more likely you will consume less of it later on (Broderick et al., 2012). The same can be said for doing the same job over and over again wherein it will eventually reach a point where the marginal utility derived from doing it will be negative thus resulting in job dissatisfaction. In order to avoid such an occurrence, it is recommended that continuous training development programs which allow employees to assume different job roles as well as sufficiently progress in their career are an optimum method for increasing job satisfaction since this enables them to “reset’ their marginal utility so to speak as they are placed into new roles. This creates continued interest, the desire to learn and improve which in the end results in high degrees of job satisfaction.
Introduction to Methodology
This section aims to provide information on how the study will be conducted and the rationale behind employing the discussed methodologies and techniques towards augmenting the study’s validity. In addition to describing the research design, the theoretical framework, and the population and sample size that will be used in this study, this section will also elaborate on instrumentation and data collection techniques, validity and reliability, data analysis, and pertinent ethical issues that may emerge in the course of undertaking this study.
Role of the Researcher
The role of researcher in this particular study is primarily that of a recruiter and aggregator of data. This takes the form of the researcher being the primary point of contact when it comes to contacting the research subjects, distributing the questionnaire and tabulating the results.
The present study will utilize a primarily qualitative research design to explore what are the top skills needed in coordinators based on their evaluation by EFL instructors at The English Language Institute of King Abdulaziz University. In order to accomplish this 150 language instructors have been asked to evaluate their coordinators by filling out an electronic evaluation form by the end of each academic module totaling 3 modules. Each instructor is assigned an academic coordinator by the beginning of each module in the institute where each academic coordinator coordinates between 5-10 instructors. By the end of each module, each instructor evaluates her coordinator based on a form developed by the Professional Development unit in the institute which in turn is responsible for training and enhancing the performance of those coordinators. All evaluations of each coordinator have been calculated and the coordinator who gets the highest score has been awarded the title of Miss Coordinator. However, the evaluation of skills and commitment to responsibilities needs to be analyzed in order to find out the greatest areas of weaknesses and strengths.
Sekaran (2006) observed most qualitative studies are either descriptive or experimental. The study will utilize a descriptive correlational approach because participants will be measured once. According to Sekaran, a questionnaire technique is used when the researcher is principally interested in descriptive, explanatory or exploratory appraisal, as is the case in this study. The justification for choosing a questionnaire approach for this particular study is grounded on the fact that participants will have the ability to respond to the data collection tool by way of self-report, thus, this project will utilize a self-administered questionnaire schedule for purposes of data collection. An analysis of related literature will be used to compare the study findings with other research on what top skills that are needed in coordinators based on their evaluation by EFL instructors at The English Language Institute of King Abdulaziz University how such information can be utilized in order to create better and more effective coordinators in the future. Such analysis, according to Sekaran (2006), is important in identifying the actual constructs that determine efficient analysis because “it goes beyond mere description of variables in a situation to an understanding of the relationships among factors of interest” (p. 119).
The research subjects for this particular study will consist of the 150 language instructors who will be asked to evaluate their respective coordinators.
This methodology exposes the participants to an assortment of risks that need to be taken into consideration during the research process. The main risk the participants will encounter is if any of their answers that criticize or indicate dissatisfaction with certain coordinators leaks. This may have consequences on the attitude and opinion of coordinators towards them and can result in victimization. To eliminate this risk, the responses will be kept in an anonymous location as well as the names of the instructors and coordinators utilized within this study will not be revealed. This way, the only way to access the information will be through a procedure that involves the researcher. The project thus observes research ethics in sampling as well as during data collection process.
Possible ethical considerations that may arise through this study consist of the following:
- The potential for unintentional plagiarism through verbatim lifting of information, arguments and points of view from researched source material.
- The use of unsubstantiated information taken from unverifiable or nonacademic resources (ex: internet articles).
- The use of a biased viewpoint on issues which may inadvertently result in an alteration of the questionnaire results.
- Presentation of data without sufficient corroborating evidence or a lack of citation.
- Falsifying the results of the research for the benefit of the initial assumptions of the study.
- Using views and ideas without giving due credit to the original source.
According to Saunders et al. (2000), “Ethics refers to the appropriateness of your behavior in relation to the rights of those who become the subject of your work, or are affected by it” (p. 130). The researcher will take time to elaborate the rights of participants during the study process, including the right to informed consent and the right to confidentiality. By addressing these concerns through guidelines on proper ethics and research, it is expected that there will be few ethical concerns that will need to be addressed.
Results and Analysis
This section forms the major part of the research development as it dictates the ability of the study to meet the previously pre-established objectives. It is worth noting that as indicated earlier, the major consideration for the research was indeed highly complex in terms of the response given by the samples as identified by the sampling method and the actual outcome that was observed.
The researcher designed the approach in a manner that all the collected data at the time of study maintained the holistic orientation of the research as provided by the objectives to easily establish the viability of the hypothesis. Following this notion, the study employed a Linket 5-point scale to establish the different categories of the information given by the respondents. This method has been used extensively in effectively scaling qualitative data given by the respondents to ease its analysis. Linket 5-point scales use weights of 1,2,3,4, and 5 as the main indicators to mean strong agreement, general agreement, satisfaction or general disagreement with a particular proposition, and strongly disagreeing with the aspect in consideration. It is worth noting that through the use of this method, major complexities were eliminated for the respondents and the researcher during the data gathering process. When examining the results of the study it was seen by the researcher that many of the respondents had answered with a “perfect” score for their respective coordinators and as such created an initial problem with differentiating “top” skills with the areas that needed to be improved upon. It is was due to this that the researcher focused primarily on areas that indicated “weakness” starting with the Linket scale factors of satisfactory, needs improvement and unsatisfactory.
It was determined by the researcher that by initially combining the results from these sections it would be easier to determine what particular skill sets course coordinators would need to focus on in order to improve their skills. While it may be true that the Linket rating of “satisfactory” is generally understood to mean that an individual has reached a sufficient level of performance it was determined by the researcher that such a level does not constitute a “top” skill rating and as such it is better to include it under the section that indicates an area that needs to be improved upon. Another reason why this particular rating is being utilized to examine the weaknesses of the course coordinators is connected to the fact that a large percentage of the questionnaire results had little variation between the factors of outstanding and very good. While this is a positive result in terms of evaluating the general views of the instructor population regarding the quality of education they are receiving it was not what the researcher was looking for since it created significant issues over what particular skill set has a sufficiently divergent number of results so as to determine which is better than the other. Combined with the fact that relatively few of the respondents actually placed a rating on the “needs improvement” and “unsatisfactory” sections of the questionnaire resulted in the need to utilize a third section in order to create a sufficiently large enough basis for the examination.
It must be noted though that the researcher did indicate earlier on within the introductory text of this research paper that due to the relatively short amount of time attributed to this study that there was a possibility that the results were less than ideal due to the limited population range examined. Lastly, in order to determine an accurate range for what can be considered the “weakest” skill range the researcher determined that 19 was a sufficient median to start the examination on with questionnaire scores of 19 and above being indicative of an inherent weakness that is attributed to a particular skill range. In the case of the “top” skills of coordinators within the university, obtaining such a score is quite easy since all that was needed in order to tabulate the results was to examine the outstand and very good sections. Unfortunately as mentioned earlier the inherent problem with the current population set is a relatively less diverse method of evaluation with many of the members giving outstanding as their score with relatively few “very goods”. In order to address the similarity both the “outstanding” and “very good” sections were examined with the total score between the two being an indicative method of measurement in order to determine the top skills of coordinators within the university. Unfortunately when examining the scores there was very little divergence making it that much harder to determine who had the highest score within a particular section.
|Statement||Outstanding||Very Good||Satisfactory||Needs Improvement||Unsatisfactory||Result|
| ||Ability to establish clear objectives of the coordination process.||116||14||9||2||11|
| ||Ability to perform team management skills.||110||15||12||1||2||15|
| ||Ability to understand and interpret instructor’s needs.||119||14||6||4||2||12|
| ||Ability to listen actively and give full attention to what others are saying.||119||13||9||2||11|
| ||Ability to resolve emerging crisis successfully among instructors.||86||15||9||2||3||14|
| ||Ability to foster enthusiasm among teachers.||77||16||9||7||1||17|
| ||Ability to work independently as well as in groups.||129||14||5||1||6|
|SUPPORT AND MENTORING SKILLS|
| ||Develops supportive relationships among instructors||116||16||10||1||2||13|
| ||Able to maintain motivation while managing a fluctuating workload.||84||17||6||5||2||13|
| ||Able to maintain initiative and share information and learning with instructors.||56||10||11||3||14|
| ||Supports the development and implementation of new teaching methods and academic and professional practices.||77||21||12||2||3||17|
| ||Models leadership behaviors.||125||22||11||4||3||18|
| ||Encourages leadership development in instructors.||89||19||15||5||3||23|
|Recommend improvements to teaching tools, practices and other academic activities.||94||30||14||5||2||22|
| ||Analyzes instructors performance and provide evidence-based justifications||100||18||11||7||3||21|
| ||Gives appropriate and constructive written and oral feedback||115||17||11||5||2||18|
| ||Meets regularly with instructors to discuss pertinent issues and announcements of teaching and examinations.||130||15||4||4|
| ||Maintains immediate online communication with instructors||87||25||5||1||6|
| ||Promotes respect of rules and norms of the ELI||129||14||2||1||3|
| ||Encourages instructors to attend workshops and facilitate their attendance.||115||13||15||2||2||19|
| ||Allows ample time for instructors to perform their academic duties.||128||12||9||1||1||11|
| ||Manages instructors’ matters with respect to classroom coverage due to illness, emergency, leaves, and other unexpected cases.||136||16||6||1||1||8|
| ||Provides support services to instructors in areas such as office space, classroom services |
| ||Demonstrates knowledge regarding EFL teaching and curriculum issues.||112||15||12||1||13|
The end result of the study reveals that the following skills have been determined by the instructors as the most “lacking” among the course coordinators of the university and has been arranged by level of “importance” as indicated by the number of responses per category.
- Encourages leadership development in instructors. 23
- Recommend improvements to teaching tools, practices and other academic activities. 22
- Analyzes instructor’s performance and provide evidence-based justifications 21
- Encourages instructors to attend workshops and facilitate their attendance. 19
- Provides support services to instructors in areas such as office space, classroom services and equipment 23.
Top skill sets based on score
- Promotes respect of rules and norms of the ELI
- Meets regularly with instructors to discuss pertinent issues and announcements of teaching and examinations.
- Allows ample time for instructors to perform their academic duties.
- Models leadership behaviors.
- Manages instructors’ matters with respect to classroom coverage due to illness, emergency, leaves, and other unexpected cases.
When examining the skills that the respondents have determined as “lacking” among the course coordinators an underlying theme can be seen among their choices wherein it is apparent that the instructors desire a more “hands on” approach by the coordinators as compared to the current setup utilized. The reason behind this deduction originates from the fact that aspects related to the concept of evidenced based feedback justifications, recommendation of teaching tools and practices, encouraging leadership and development as well as the provision of support services are aspects which require a course coordinator to not just present the needed lessons and data but to actually be there with the instructor in order to help them develop. What you have to understand is that it is usually the case that course coordinators merely present what has to be done and the best way in order to accomplish it and rarely do they actually work on an individual basis with instructors so as to enable them to develop their own personalized method of teaching. As evidenced by the indicated responses from the instructors such a state of affairs has not been lost on them and as such it in their opinion that the coordinators should be there to provide a more personal and in-depth approach towards the design of lessons and the provision of particular pieces of advice that go beyond the aspects of completing an exercise but rather encompasses the various nuances of what is necessary in order to succinctly apply a particular lesson in the best way possible. In other words instructors are seeking a method of feedback from their coordinators regarding their performance and lesson plans, that they desire to be informed of where they are lacking and what specific processes can be implemented to address such concerns.
The inherent problem with examining this particular section was that the scores of the respondents were far too close together to actually create a sufficiently broad enough approach that could accurately determine the top skills of coordinators within the university. In order to address this concern the researcher picked the necessary subjects for examination based on their overall score. The identified strengths of the coordinators can all be stated to conform to the basic values of education without delving too deeply into the nuances of the process.
The results of this study have in effect identified the inherent top skills and weaknesses associated with the teaching method utilized by course coordinators. Despite the fact that the end scores themselves were far too close to create what the researcher can assume as a “legitimate” differentiation, they scores were able to reveal that the top skills of the researches within the EFL program focuses primarily on basics of education while the main weakness is the inherent lack of sufficient methods of personal feedback and advice which this researcher deems as important for the process of learning.
Based on the results of the study as well as the information from the literature review, it is the recommendation of the researcher that in order to address the weak skills discovered within this study it would be necessary to implement continuous development and mentoring programs for the coordinators so that the concerns brought up can be sufficiently addressed. As it was seen within the literature review, training and development programs can help to address weaknesses and enable a teacher/coordinator to perform better at their respective job. It is based on this that this study recommends the development of a new process of coordinator evaluation wherein all the coordinators within the EFL institute of the university will be evaluated by their students. Once specific areas that require significant levels of improvement have been identified it would then be necessary to administer a training and developing program that specifically targets this particular weakness. By doing so this would enable the EFL program of the university to create EFL coordinators that can sufficiently address the concerns of their students while at the same time help to develop the EFL instructors under them in a way that enables both the effective internalization of the course material as well as the provision of specific advice towards the development of particular lesson outcomes.
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