Linguistics Essay Examples and Topics

Essays on linguistics serve to demonstrate your understanding of the discipline in a practical sense.

You apply your knowledge of various linguistics topics such as morphology or semantics and produce a scientific paper. However, this wealth of information can be difficult to present in an attractive form.

The various subjects that form linguistics have developed since their inception and become distinct yet tightly interconnected. As such, separating and ordering them within an essay is a challenge. Nevertheless, with proper structuring, you will be able to write an excellent work and gain an understanding of how to write a linguistics essay.

As with any essay, you want to include an introduction and conclusion, with the body of the paper contained between them. The former describes the topic of the essay to the reader, and the latter provides a summary of the essay and its key takeaways.

You may find an outline useful when working on the body of the paper, as it helps you organize your ideas before writing them down. You should also try to split the creative process into parts, creating a draft before finalizing it.

Here are some tips for linguistics essay creation:

  • Linguistics is a science and relies on research and facts over expressions and interpretations. This statement is true for both theoretical and applied linguistics.
  • Try to make sure that each body topic is directly related to your thesis. This approach will improve coherence and reinforce your point.
  • Do not argue for your thesis in the introduction and do not add new information in the conclusion.

Visit IvyPanda to find a variety of linguistics essay questions and other samples such as example essays!

Syntax Transformational Grammar and Systemic Functional Grammar

Introduction When teaching English syntax to students, both native and non-native, it is vital for the instructor to consider both facts and theory, and balance the two. This is because classes in English syntax are aimed at assisting students to improve on their understanding of the structure of English in a systematic and scientific manner. […]

The Conflict between Behaviourism and Rationalism in Linguistics

Introduction Linguistics and other scholars regard language as a distinct phenomenon in the society. Language contains collective implications that enhance the worth of the collaboration between individuals. It encompasses a social philosophy that is identical among individuals in the society. In language, collective ‘hums’ and meanings are accustomed to precise collective emotions and thoughts. As […]

Sexism in the English Language

The gender inequality is one of the most discussed topics in the sociological discourse, but this idea is also related to the linguistic discourse because the gender relations are reflected in languages. Thus, Piercey states that the gender relations in the English language are based on the “masculine-feminine dichotomy that arises in the vocabulary” (Piercey, […]

Intrusive R and Linking R

Introduction The history of English can be very interesting to study. English is a universal language, spoken in various countries across the world. However, different people from different regions speak this same language in a different manner. When a Briton is speaking English, there would be some noticeable differences from the speech that would be […]

Do All Languages Have Word Accent?

Introduction Larry Hyman who is the author of the report on the universality of word accent is a linguistics professor at the University of California where he specializes in phonology. He has a keen interest in languages of the African people. Larry Hyman has conducted several award winning researches and is credited for numerous quality […]

Language Evolution in Human Being

Abstract Language is one of the defining factors that differentiate human beings from animals. The ability of human being to use clear structured words instead of random sound used by animals makes human being unique. However, it is interesting to know how the language came into existence. It is interesting to know how the language […]

Language Intervention – Accents and Dialects

Introduction Language of any culture has over the year’s undergone changes in varying degrees. This is due to the change in lifestyles that has seen new vocabularies introduced into the existing language. Such alterations have contributed to the rise of dialects in the respective languages used across the world. While most people believe that an […]

Gestural Theory of Language Origin

Many linguists and philosophers have come up with a myriad of theories, suggestions and approaches in their bid to try to explain the origin language as a means of communication. Moreover, many researchers, scientists, animal behaviourists and archaeologists have conducted many experiments and excavated many historical sites to try to understand this means of communication […]

Research Methods in Linguistics

The field of research methods in linguistics is a dynamic and fast evolving field of study Researchers continuously endeavor to unearth fundamental facts underlying this line of study, the modes and codes of its operation, and its central contribution to research in linguistics. The major issues around the English Language Teaching research are discourse. This […]

Cultural Sensitivity and Language Use

The use of words and symbols is the primary source of communication. From the time we are born, we are taught to verbally express our thoughts and feelings through language. The tone and choice of words used can differ given the context of the situation; however it remains the constant tool of expression. Cultural beliefs […]

Spelling and Sound Challenges to Spanish L2 Learners of English

Abstract Learning a second language is usually a difficult task for most people. This is because; each language has its own conventions, which are not necessarily similar to those of the second language one is trying to acquire. For native Spanish speakers trying to learn English as a second language, numerous challenges may be present. […]

Second language in English Classes in Saudi Arabia: A teaching Support or a Learning Hindrance?

Aim In an insightful study on the use of first language in classroom, Cook (2001) revealed that most participants supported the application of the first language (Arabic) as a critical tool for mediation. However, the application of L1 in L2 settings has generated controversies, especially in regards to its effectiveness in the environment where not […]

There is No One-to-One Correspondence Between Orthography and Sound in English

The alphabetic spelling structure employed by the English language is known as English orthography. Similar to other r alphabetic orthographies, English employs a set of customs to symbolize language sounds in characters. Other languages have regular customs, also known as norms. Nevertheless, in English spelling, almost all sounds are spelt in different manners. Also, all […]

An Eye on Target Language Use in Elementary English Classrooms in China

Introduction Jing Peng and Lili Zhang published their work entitled ‘An eye on target language use in elementary English classrooms in China’ in an edited book by M. Nikolov titled ‘Early Learning of Modern Foreign Languages: Processes and Outcomes’ which was published in the year 2009. There is a general agreement among researchers in second […]

The Characteristics of Generative Syntax

Introduction Until 1957, the sciences of linguistics and cultural anthropology placed language in the domain society and outside of an individual. For linguists and anthropologists, human languages were completely determined by the environment in which the child grows up, and there were no limitations on the differences between languages. In other words, the view that […]


Semantics definition Semantics is a literary field that studies meaning of signs, symbols, words, and phrases and how they are used in linguistics. It is a wide field of study which has two main branches: lexical semantics, which focuses on the meaning of words and their relations when used together, and logical semantics, which is […]

The Establishment of an Immersion Program at a Prep Elementary School in Saudi Arabia

The rationale for the choice of the model The rationale for the establishment of the partial immersion program at an elementary school in Saudi Arabia is based upon the benefits of this model for the students’ cognitive abilities and proficiency in general and political and educational advantages of this model of bilingual education within a […]

The Classical Arabic and The Colloquial Dialects: Where the Line Is Drawn

Introduction There are numerous languages that are used in different parts of the world for communication. Arabic is one of them. It is spoken by many people in the world and mostly by countries in Middle East and the northern parts in the continent of Africa. In total, around 24 countries use this language as […]

Cultural Linguistic Autobiography

I came from a family that spoke only Spanish and, therefore, Spanish was the only language that I grew up speaking. However, many of my family members can now communicate in a second language. I am Hispanic, and my country of origin is the Dominican Republic. I have had no experience in K-12 schools, in […]

English as a Communication Language

Overview The speaking and writing of English as a communication language is now widespread with all the world continents well represented in most countries. Hence, it has grown to be a vital tool of communication on a global scale. The advent and advances made in the field of technology such as the invention of information […]

Pragmatic Failure in Successful Communication

Introduction Successful communication is a desirable result of every person, who is participating in the discourse. In order to create favorable conditions for interaction, both interlocutors should be aware of how communication act emerges. First, the speaker is codifying the information, which is proceeded by sending the message to the listener. Further, the latter is […]

Sociolinguistic Perspectives of ELT

Introduction The paper focuses on the use of sociolinguistic perspectives in the process of protecting English as a language in areas where it is endangered as being a minority language by conducting a sociolinguistic study on the reasons resulting to this situation, the prevailing circumstances and the endangerment results. The paper also looks at other […]

Diglossia in the Teaching of Arabic as a Foreign Language

Arabic language happens to be one of the major languages of the world that has got very many existing varieties. In its study there may emerge diglossia, a situation whereby two languages find themselves being used by one language community at the same time (Al – Batal 286). Diglossia therefore in the Arabic context is […]

Students Language Skills Project

Introduction The present paper is one of the steps in a pedagogical grammar course. The purpose of the present project is to carry out a collaborative project with ESLA students on the improvement of their oral and written grammar skills in using English according to their linguistic objectives. There are a considerable number of approaches […]

Language and Time

Language is a critical tool in the humanities and social sciences. It would be impossible to study communication arts, history, philosophy, religion and the classics if one will deprive himself of this tool. Language is the key that opens the door in the study of humanities. However, the same thing can be said when it […]

English for Global Communication

Interviews Every year more and more students made a decision to study abroad. That is why they are to understand a new language and interact with new culture. The concepts of global citizenship and intercultural communication occur to be the ones that help to understand this situation and processes connected with it. So I have […]

L1 and L2 Glosses in Vocabulary Retention and Memorisation

Introduction It cannot be denied that developing a rich vocabulary is a particularly important aspect of studying a foreign language (L2). At the same time, it is an admittedly difficult task, which prompted researchers to search for effective ways of solving this problem. One of such solutions is the usage of glosses in the process […]

Bill’s Lesson on Speaking and Pronouncing English Words

Introduction This treatise offers a comprehensive critique of the lesson taught by Bill, the teacher, in an elementary classroom. The lesson is about speaking and pronunciation of English words by learners who are learning to speak in English. Bill makes good use of the dialogue frame as the primary tool for practising speaking and pronunciation […]

Testing in Language Teaching

Language testing stands for the identification of the level of a learner’s preparation to use their language skills and knowledge in real life situations and environments. Testing is an essential part of teaching a language and should not be viewed as a separate activity. Since the result is crucial in teaching, an educator is to […]

Orthographic Transcription

Linguists have a number of transcription conventions to utilise. Notably, these systems share certain features in common but they are quite different (Mazeland, 2006). In this paper, one of the most conventional transcription systems will be employed, Jefferson’s convention. This system is clear and concise and it enables the transcriber to reveal all major peculiarities […]

Suitability of a First Secondary English Textbook

Introduction English language is considered a foreign language in the Kingdom of Saud Arabia (KSA). Learners are introduced to the English language using EFL teaching materials at the sixth grade in public schools and at kindergarten to students who attend private schools. Teaching materials for EFL in the KSA are developed by the ministry of […]

Language and Misinterpretations

Language comprehension is an important tool of communication. Through language, human beings are able to exchange information amongst themselves, form relationships, comprehend, and express their feelings. Consequently, language is a vital component of human understanding. The issue of misinterpretation in language use is very important because it has the potential to affect communication in a […]

Effects of Multilingualism on Saudi Arabian Children

Research Proposal Aims The study under consideration aims at discussing the effects of multilingualism on Saudi Arabian children development and understanding of the world around. To be more specific, the paper discloses the multilingualism effects on children’s behaviour and language development as these two issues are considered to be the main factors that can define […]

Teaching and Testing the English Vocabulary

ESL is the acronym for English as the Second Language. It is usually a program that helps foreigners in English speaking countries to learn the language in a systematic way. The students are typically learning the basics of the language so that they can have confidence in their accomplishments career wise. They also learn some […]

Multilingualism and Children Language Behaviour

The proposed study touches upon the effects of multilingualism on children’s language behaviour, this is why the research locale should be properly chosen. It is reasonable to find 20-50 children from age 4 to 16, who grow or grew up in a bilingual or multilingual society (e.g. with parents, who may use different languages or […]

Effects of Standardized Testing of World Languages

Introduction Educational standards refer to the learning objectives regarding what learners should know and capable of doing at diverse grade levels. The standards assist teachers in ensuring that the learners gain the competencies and information essential for success. Additionally, the standards facilitate teacher’s efforts in assisting parents comprehend teachers’ expectation of the learners (Chaucer, 2012). […]

English Language Learners

English language learners have a diverse range of needs that should be met by educators. This paper is aimed at examining the way in which my school supports these students as well as their parents. In particular, it is necessary to compare the current strategies against the best practices recommended by researchers. Overall, it is […]

Al Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language

The examination of the use of Al Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language can be discussed as the promising opportunity for researchers to study the aspects of the language development. Thus, linguists can focus on examining the situation and on supporting their hypotheses about the origin of the language structure and its development with references to the […]

Cantonese Language

Background Cantonese is usually regarded to be one of the dialects of Chinese. This language is spoken by millions of people in many areas of the World, for example, the United States, Australia, Europe, South America, etc. It originated in Southern China in the province of Guangzhou, which is known in the English speaking world […]

A New Role for Contrastive Analysis

Language issues seem to have been the stumbling block for people’s communication for centuries. In his article “Cross-Linguistic Awareness: A New Role for Contrastive Analysis,” Carl James discusses the question concerning the contrastive analysis and its application for the comparative studies of two or more languages. Considering the following quote from Fries’ paper: “The most […]

Speech Language Pathology Research

Language and speech are some of the most important human characteristics that differentiate people from other living organisms. Unfortunately, there are sometimes developmental abnormalities that cause children to have significant problems in recognizing and using language and speaking. An article titled “The Efficacy of Fast ForWord Language Intervention in School-Age Children with Language Impairment: A […]

A critical Evaluation of a Second language

Introduction There has been an increase in language testing and evaluation in the world due to globalisation. There has also been a wide acceptance of second language training in many countries in the world today. Therefore, there is a high demand of a common language that can aid in the interaction of people in tourism, […]

A lesson plan for the multicultural learning of science

This is a lesson plan for the multicultural learning of science. The aim of the plan is to utilize the legend of the Mayans to depict to the students the way science evolved through the ages. The paper is directed towards students of fourth standard. Performance Objective The aim of the lesson is to enhance […]

Religious Studies: Marcel Mauss Theory of Magic

Unlike other earlier scholars who had treated the practice of magic as a psychological phenomenon, Mauss postulated that the practice of magic had an origin in the social organization of the society. Mauss’ work is of great interest to anthropologists because of the approach that he had followed in coming up with the general theory […]

Language of Children

Introduction The language that children use amongst themselves sharply contrasts that which they use when talking to adults. According to Veltman (38), communication goes beyond the ability to pass information from one person to the other. It entails the manner in which, the information is passed, non-verbal cues that are involved, and the level of […]

Morphology and Phonology

Morphology is a linguistic term that refers to the process of identifying and describing morphemes, parts of speech, intonations, affixes, and root words of a language. It establishes the relationship between words and grammar rules. For instance, it enables learners to comprehend the difference between words like ball and balls. In this case, the difference […]

Literacy Instruction for African American Students

In her article on literacy instruction among African American students, Glover stresses that the language issues, particularly the active use of African American English (AAE), are the reason for a concern and for even more trouble with studying, particularly, literacy acquisition. Since “public schools across America are failing to meet the literacy needs of students […]

Integration of Essays on Linguistics

Linguistics as a science has a long history of research and discovery, but still there is little agreement on the major roles and impacts of linguistic activity on the human nature, relationships and communication. It goes without saying that any language is a powerful instrument of persuasion and communication of any information; it is a […]

English vs. Russian Adjectives

Introduction Paper structure The aim of this paper is to compare the adjectives in the two languages, namely English and Russian. The discussed issues include the formation of adjectives, their structure, morphology, meaning, role in sentences, and peculiarities of this part of speech in each language. This study will present the special features of Russian […]

Text Analysis with Systemic Functional Grammar Framework

Text for Analysis Susan: Why don’t you want to go there with me, Teddy? Theodore: Well… You see… Sue, I’m not really sure that I should. Besides, you are a smart girl and can do that on your own. Susan: But… I thought we were going to the Jarreds’ together. And now… Now I do […]

Pragmatic Development

Abstract The present study is the actual replication of the study of Chang (2010) on the analysis of developmental pragmatics and evolution of speech acts of L2 learners with the increased proficiency levels in English. The speech act of apology was analyzed with the help of tools and analysis instruments similar to those of Chang […]

Visual Language Analysis

They say that humans are meaning makers, and we uniquely make meanings by means of our own creation and interpretation of codes and signs which take the form of words, images, sounds, odours, flavours, acts and objects. These forms of signs have no original meaning and actually become signs only when we invest them with […]

When Words Mean not What They Are Supposed to

Introduction: New Language, New Issues Even when dealing with closely related languages, one is highly likely to confuse the so-called false friends for linguistic cognates. The problem becomes even more obvious and hard to cope with when it comes to dealing with the similarities and differences between Semitic languages, which the Arabic one belongs to, […]

Figurative Language versus Literal Language

Figurative language is the use of words in a way that compromises their usual meaning (Critical Thinking, 2007). Literal language, on the other hand, does not deviate from the usual meaning. Figurative language is often exaggerated to achieve the intended purpose. Various forms of this language will be discussed in this essay. An idiom is […]

The Impact of English as a Tool of Global Communication

Introduction For several decades already English has been used for international communication. It allows the representatives from different countries to communicate easily without knowing their native languages. Thus, it is used for formal interactions and non-formal ones. This language is taught in numerous countries so that today more people speak English as a second or […]

Benefits of Bilingualism among Kindergarten Children

Abstract The purpose of this report is to show the benefits of learning more than one language among kindergarten children. The document was requested by preschool establishments that are planning a marketing campaign to increase the level of enrolment. The research identified a number of benefits associated with bilingualism among the target population. The advantages […]

“The Role of Native Language Phonology in the Production of L2 Contrasts” by Eckman and Iverson

In their article, Eckman and Iverson (2013) present the research conducted to confirm or deny particular hypotheses regarding the acquisition of the contrast between English [s] and [ʃ] among native speaking Koreans and Japanese. The authors provide adequate literature research and explain the background, clearly identify the topic and hypotheses, describe the study itself and […]

Skopos Theory: Person’s Development as a Translator

Introduction The contemporary globalized world is associated with the need in development of various communicative approaches. The translator is playing an important role as a mediator between people pertaining to different cultural backgrounds (Cui, 2009: 8). The Skopos theory was developed in the 1970s to address the new trends that started appearing in the information […]

Natural Semantic Metalanguage

A language is a tool for expressing a meaning. People think, feel, understand, and express their thoughts and feelings with the help of language. The common features to all of these different uses of language are participation in the communication process and transferring a certain sense. This paper is a critical review of semantic primes […]

Importance of Paraphrasing

Zinsser (2005) argued that writing is not a product but a process that needs time and attention to develop. In many occasions, it is always difficult for writers to come up with a perfect piece of literature in the first attempt. It is common to find that in the first draft, there are a number […]

Bilingualism and Multilingualism

Language is the influential aspect which determines the peculiarities of the people’s interactions in society. It is possible to discuss the usage of language for communication from psychological, linguistic, and sociolinguistic perspectives because language plays an enormous role in the formation of human identity. The peculiar features of the social development influence the progress of […]

Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesis

It is obvious that different people have absolutely various perception of the reality and much talk exists concerning this problem. Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesis is based on the idea that human perception of the reality is based on the language they talk. Thus, according to this theory depending on the language people talk, they are […]

The Problem of Speech Genres

The excerpt “the problem of speech genres” explores the infinite diversity of speech. The manner in which a speech is delivered is said to be unique in every sense or piece of literary work. Speech is said to only have relevance in its immediate context. Once the style and words used in the delivery of […]

Meaning of Spelling

Abstract This paper examines the meaning of spelling and goes further to discuss the stages of spelling development. It also discusses the connection of phonics and concludes with the discussion on the best way to teach spelling and how to help English learners with spelling. Introduction Spelling is the process of writing of words or […]

Metacommentaries in “Nuclear Waste” by Richard A. Muller

Metacommentaries make discussion of any problem more individual, it helps to make sure that the problem is dwelt upon from personal point of view and that the teller does not want to sound too publicly and expresses only is/her own opinion. The metacommentaries are aimed at helping the teller not only to express his/her personal […]

Literature review on Language Use

Literature Review In academic arena, English plays a very crucial role especially in institutions whereby it has been used for infinitely long period of time as a medium of instruction. Students are expected to not only communicate effectively in English language. They are also supposed to master its extensive usage so that they can be […]

Effect of Mandarin on spoken English

Introduction English language is one of the most popular languages across the world, spoken in many countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, America, among others. However, it is important to note that the spoken English have a variation, a fact that is always associated with the first language that one speaks before learning English. It is […]

Information Gathering from Official and Non Official Irish News Media using Task Based Learning

Introduction For many decades, teachers have struggled to find an effective teaching technique to facilitate the transfer of knowledge between students and teachers in language learning. Due to this fact, many teachers have noted that there is a strong need to come up with effective teaching methods that concentrate more on the students instead of […]

Teaching the Spoken Language

Introduction English is the most widely spoken language in the world today. Stemming from the British Empire dominance in the early days of civilization, former colonies of Britain either adopted English as their official language or as their second most important language after some indigenous languages. Because its used in international instruction, learning English as […]

The Difficulties Asian Students at the English Class

Background Language acquisition is the complex process of a teacher’s and a learner’s activity, which should function in accord and concurrence. Undoubtedly, during mastering the particular language, there arises a range of problems of different nature, which the potential foreign language speaker has to face and overcome alone or with the teacher’s help. These problems […]

Defining Features of Language for Specific Purposes and Changes in Concerns since the 1980s

Introduction Language for Specific Purposes (herein referred to as LSP) can be conceptualised as one of the major branches of applied linguistics (Hyland, 2002). To this end, this sub- branch of applied linguistics has been used as a reference to two major realms in the field. The first area focuses on “…….the needs in education […]

Language policy in Saudi Arabia

Introduction Language acts as an important tool that makes sure there is effective communication. It is actually not easy to communicate without the spoken words. Language has its usefulness to human development as research has found. Actually it would be difficult for people to think and actually associate the things and concepts they come across. […]

Hedges in Linguistics

The definitions of Hedges by various Linguists According to Nikula (1997, p.188), hedging is a technique in communication which speakers employ in their utterances to ‘soften’ their magnitude of their speeches. The approach aims at enhancing agreement between the speaker and the listeners. In short, he suggests that it helps to bring the hearers and […]

Acquisition of a language

Acquisition of a language is a situation whereby a person, specifically one who is exposed to the language to be acquired is exposed to that language. It can either happen in a natural set up where the target language is used and that the learner of this language acquires it by mere exposure to that […]

Observer’s Paradox

Introduction The observer’s paradox is also known as the Hawthorne effect in social sciences. In sociolinguistics, it was first coined and observed by William Labov when he studied variation and style in speech. He designed the famous sociolinguistic interview meant to get information about language. In this interview, he emphasized on four structural parts that […]

English for Special Purposes

Identifying Characteristics of Taxi Drivers as Learners of English for Specific Purposes The group of students includes taxi drivers who will need to meet the existing standards of the language proficiency. The age of the focus group varies significantly from 25 to 45 years. Specifically, a group under the age category 30 amounts to 60 […]

Anaphor agreement effect

Introduction In the article, the author seeks to enhance the understanding of anaphor agreement effect. It seeks to demystify the prevalent knowledge and general understanding among linguists that anaphors are syntactically positioned and that they happen in harmony with their linguistic agreement. Using the premise of argument marking, the author explains that case and agreement […]

Critical Evaluation of the Use of English Unaccusative Verbs

The article introduces the different uses of unaccusative verbs. In addition, it illustrates how different writers explain their use of unaccusative verbs to bring a variety of meanings. Cortés (1992) believes that the use of unaccusative verb improves the ability to designate an inherent accusative verb that is not partitive. This form, however, faces the […]

Review of Qualitative Methods in Linguistics

Introduction Though quantitative methods are much more valid and reliable than qualitative methods, the latter provides in-depth perspectives on human behaviors, as well as reasons that predetermine these behaviors. Specifically, Dornyei (2007) realizes limitations to the quantitative research and, therefore, the researcher recommends qualitative research as a tool to examine specific concepts in a broader […]

“Imaginary Homelands” the Essay by Rushdie

Introduction The essay Imaginary Homelands describes the plight of the writers in the Diaspora as they attempt to reconnect with their homelands. However, the reconnection fails miserably due to incomplete memory. They are completely out of touch with their homelands and hence grossly alienated. This essay will focus on the features of semantic and lexical […]

Cross Culture Communication – Learning of English

Introduction of the topic It is important to consider structural differences evident in the English language in order to understand how the norms of communication and ways of speaking differ for Arabic speakers learning the language. Linguistic differences exist between communities embracing unrelated social and cultural obligations. This is a fundamental observation when considered critically. […]

Theoretical Approaches to Syntax

Abstract This paper introduces the topic of the research paper which is the Syntax (Transformational Grammar (the Chomskyan approach to grammar) ) and Systemic Functional Grammar (the Hallidayian approach to grammar). The paper goes ahead and highlights the important theories of language, namely: Systemic Functional Grammar, the theory of transformational generative grammar, an introduction of […]

Cognition of Language

Introduction The age at which language can be learnt is an area that has been given attention by different researchers. Researchers have tested syntax, lexical, phonological and grammatical differences of different people and of different ages in which they acquired the first and the second language. Different results have led to the explanation of the […]


Introduction Paweł Zieliński’s report is titled ‘Bilingualism’ and is a brief analysis of bilinguals and who they are. It also helps readers to distinguish a person who is a bilingual from one who is not. According to the Encarta Dictionary (2011), a bilingual refers to a person “able to speak two languages easily and naturally.” […]

Language Testing and Assessment

Introduction Language testing and assessment requires a guiding framework and a solid benchmark upon which a student’s performance can be evaluated. According to Bachman and Palmer (1996) model, a language test should not only focus on oral proficiency, but also other important components of a language. In this regard, Bachman and Palmer (1996) developed the […]

The two linguistic concepts of Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky

Both Ferdinand de Saussure contribute their popular theories on linguistics. The research centres on the popular linguistic theories of Ferdinand de Saussure. The research includes research on the similarly popular linguistic concepts of Noam Chomsky. The two linguistic concepts of Ferdinand de Saussure and Noam Chomsky complement each other to explain how humans communicate with […]


Introduction Multilingualism is defined as the ability of a person to speak in more than one language. To many people it is easier to learn a first language than a second language. This is because learning the second language involves learning new things or aspects about the language. Some of the reasons for it being […]

Conceptual Metaphors and Metonyms in Love Pop Songs.

Abstract The notion of conceptual metaphor is one that deals with understanding of one concept in terms of another within the same conceptual domain. According to Evans & Green (2006), it is an important aspect of cognitive linguistic, which has been in existence for a long time. The two entities used are source, also known […]

Sentence Processing: Effects of Semantic Structure on Sentence Perception

Introduction Understanding the practical structures of sentence interpretation has been an area of intense research for over a century, and interest in the basis of language and sentence processing is as old as the initially documented clinical records. In spite of this consideration, the neural design of sentence interpretation has been amazingly complex to categorize, […]

Critical Summary: “The time course of semantic and syntactic processing in Chinese sentence comprehension: Evidence from eye movements” by Yang, Suiping, Hsuan-Chih and Rayner

Introduction Language is said to be a system that tries to place meaning to a word, but for people to agree on a word in relation to the intended meaning, then there must be the universal acceptance of the intended meaning (Hu, 2001, cited in Yang, Suiping, Hsuan-Chih & Rayner, 2009). Semantics is the study […]

A Survey of Specific Purposes on Language Use in English and Arabic: A Literature Review

Introduction Languages such as English, Spanish and French among others are increasingly being used by people who are not native speakers of those languages in contemporary society. For example, it is noted that most universities around the world are adapting English as the basic language for instruction in the classroom (Upton & Lee-Thompson, 2001). Most […]

Review of Scoring Rubric

Introduction English language learners’ represents a significant subpopulation of USA students which in the 2006/07 school year were more than 5 million in the PK to 12 grades (Esquinca, Yaden, & Rueda, 2008). This is projected to represent 1 in 9 students in the country with 80% of them nationally being native Spanish speakers and […]

Pragmatics Application

Introduction Over the years that man has been in existence, he has found a unique way to pass message to the other members of his community. He has achieved this through the process of talking. This is very essential as he has been able to communicate what he feels, what he thinks and what he […]

How important is the Critical Period in Developing Target Language-Like Mastery

The critical period hypothesis stipulates that the capability of an individual to master a language is confined in the years before puberty. According to critical period hypothesis, the ability to master a language normally disappears after puberty due to maturation of the brain. Critical period hypothesis was proposed by Penfield, Roberts and Lenneberg in the […]

Translation Strategies

Abstract Considering translation has a strong effect on various audiences, several researchers have come out to explore the appropriate manner of translating audio-visual contents into subtitles. This study sums up the findings of such researchers, through a keen focus on the movie Bad boys two and comprehensively, it articulates that, for producers to write the […]

Delivering Effective Oral Presentations: How to Succeed in Public Speaking

The essay is a commentary on an article titled “Delivering Effective Oral Presentations: How to Succeed in Public Speaking” written by Geraldine Eliot and published in 2008. This is accomplished by giving a summery of the author’s main points and a reflection on the article that includes good take-away, useful learning and interesting ideas. The […]

Mandarin Chinese

Like any other language, Mandarin Chinese is also quite challenging and interesting to learn at the same time. Certain, much depends on the way you approach learning as well as teaching techniques applied by the instructor. I has interested in Ms. Wang’s amazing and unconventional techniques to mastering Mandarin Chinese and this is one of […]

First Language to Teach Second Language: Complexities and Contradictions

The relevance of L1 in teaching L2 First language (L1) has been used to support teaching and learning of second language (L2). L1 has become a rich resource for teaching L2. This is a way of maximising the learning experience especially for the case of bilingual English teachers who can speak the first language of […]

The Development of Language: Teaching and Learning Theory

Language Development Introduction Language acquisition is a continuous process that begins early in life. The first language is usually easy to learn as it is introduced early in life. Children learn their first language through interaction with people who speak the language. This is usually easier than learning a second language as an adult. The […]