Famous Theorists and Key Details
|Name (Country of Origin):||Birth Date/Death Date:||Educational Background:||Associated Theory:||Theory’s Key Components/Statements:|
|John Dewey (USA)||1859/1952|| ||Child-centred education (progressivism in education)|| |
|Jean Piaget (Switzerland)||1896/1980|| ||Stages of development||– There are four stages: |
|Burrhus Frederik Skinner (USA)||1904/1990|| ||Operant conditioning|| |
|Erik Erikson (Germany)||1902/1994|| ||Theory of psychosocial development (with assistance from Joan Erikson)|| |
|Abraham Maslow (USA)||1908/1970|| ||Hierarchy of needs|| |
|Lev Vygotsky (Imperial Russia, USSR)||1896/1934|| ||Zone of proximal development|| |
|Alfie Kohn (USA)||1957/still alive|| ||Kohn contributed to classroom management theories|| |
|Friedrich Froebel (Germany)||1782/1852|| ||Theory of play and education|| |
|Arnold Gesell (USA)||1880/1961|| ||Maturational theory of child development|| |
|Stanley Hall (USA)||1846/1924|| ||Theory of adolescence|| |
|Charles Darwin (England)||1809/1882|| ||Theory of biological evolution|| |
(Gray and MacBlain 22)
|Ivan Pavlov (Imperial Russia, USSR)||1849/1936|| ||Theory of classical conditioning|| |
|Edward Thorndike (USA)||1874/1949|| ||Connectionism|| |
|John Watson (USA)||1878/1958|| ||Behaviorist approach to learning|| |
|Maria Montessori (Italy)||1870/1952||Studied medicine (undergraduate degree) and philosophy (did not finish her studies) at the University of Rome |
A Doctor of Medicine (the University of Amsterdam)
|Montessori theory of education|| |
|Jerome Bruner (USA)||1915/2016||Academic degrees in psychology: Duke University (Bachelor), Harvard University (Master, PhD)||Bruner’s theory of development|| |
A popular theory of learning that is focused on behaviors that can be observed and studied objectively. Unlike other concepts, it does not emphasize the role of subjective cognitive processes. The components peculiar to early education include the ability to use positive/negative reinforcements to achieve the necessary results, the leading role of the teacher, and the teacher’s ability to punish or reward children (Charlesworth 22).
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Today, behaviorism is a dominant approach in education widely used in general education or mainstream schools. Its use is manifested in the presence of study plans that involve tests, grades, and tasks that gradually become more difficult. For early childhood education, these methods can be used with the help of prizes and tasks. Behaviorism gave rise to the method of direct instruction currently used by the majority of teachers and famous educators, often in combination with other theories.
The approach to education that recognizes the presence of well-structured mechanisms of development. This approach involves helping children to develop properly (passive help) instead of seeing the teacher as the key decision-maker and evaluator. Components peculiar to early education: the educational process should be child-centered, the use of statistical data on normal development and observations, teach new skills based on readiness. The concepts or maturationism are widely used in nursery schools that use the Reggio-Emilia approach. Famous educators who fully or partially adhere to the principles of maturationism include Loris Malaguzzi and other Reggio Emilia teachers.
Is the approach, according to which children are the active and full-fledged participants of the learning process. The components related to early education include the teacher’s role as a guide, the flexibility of daily schedules, children’s ability to participate in planning, learning through discoveries and experiments (Charlesworth 18). The types of institutions that use the approach include Bank Street nurseries and preschools. Famous people who support the approach or adhere to it include Alfie Kohn, Marian Small, and Meir Muller.
Gray, Colette, and Sean MacBlain. Learning Theories in Childhood. 2nd ed., Sage Publications, 2015.
Charlesworth, Rosalind. Understanding Child Development. 9th ed., Cengage Learning, 2014.