The emergence of the state and the constantly renewing need for its existence were, first of all, a consequence of the self-development of society, which has its internal mechanisms and requires a coordinated directing influence from a single center. All the existing states have their history of development and formation conditions, but they also have a common feature. The Neolithic revolution was a catalyst for the destruction of tribal organizations.
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It provoked social stratification in society, and subsequently became the basis for the transformation of customs into legal norms. Researchers note that by applying the Marxist worldview to various areas of social relations, they obtain precisely, logically interconnected, non-contradictory results (1). The purpose of this paper is to explore the theories of state formation and correlate them with the emergence of the USA.
Several theories that, to some extent, explain the creation of the United States will be considered. Legitimacy is a particular state of power when citizens voluntarily and consciously accept the right of the ability to command. According to Max Weber, legitimacy means recognition of the energy and acts as a guarantor of the stability of structures, procedures, decisions, and officials in society (2). Weber uses the word domination, which is characterized as obedience to a specific order for power acceptance (2). However, violence alone is not enough for the operating and long-term functioning of the domination system.
It is necessary to have specific values, beliefs, according to which obedience of the governed is achieved. No system of laws will come into motion without the desire of people to accept it. The Bill of Rights, which has existed since 1789, invariably acts as a guarantor of the democratic state formation. Amendments are introduced following the realities of the time to ensure the legality of the established order.
Robert Bates considers the theory of state emerged as a result of violence (3). According to the bellicist theory, the country is an outcome of a fierce struggle of people (3). It is important to note that both theories largely explain the discovery of America in 1492 when the situation in the world has fundamentally changed (4). Active development of new lands began, shipbuilding advanced at an incredible speed. However, along with the strengthening of international relations, new territories have caused numerous conflicts between indigenous people and visitors. Violence was the main driving force in the conquest of a new continent.
The Judeo-Christian worldview supports the theory that man is able to create a living environment through God’s creations. Such a concept implies the direct participation of the church as the dominant influential structure in early Christianity. The founders of the United States believed in the need to observe the moral principles of the Jewish-Christian tradition to achieve public welfare (5). The influence of Judeo-Christian morality to accomplish the good of American society in its formation contributed to the maintenance of moral principles and individual behavior in accordance with ideas about human virtue.
In conclusion, religion was supposed to help people live, guided by the ethical principles of religious communities, and had a significant impact on the US government. An integral, unified, and logically verified system or theory is a way in which conclusions in one area of social relations do not contradict findings in another. Thus, the theories of the state origin explain the meaning and nature of the changes, the conditions, and the causes of its emergence.
Dickovick, James Tyler, and Jonathan Eastwood. Comparative Politics: Classic and Contemporary Readings. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017.
Dickovick, James Tyler, and Jonathan Eastwood. Comparative Politics: Integrating Theories, Methods, and Cases. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.
Herbert, Mark, and John Kerry. “The Significance of the Change of Marxist Philosophy.” Philosophia Africana 19, no. 1 (2017): 55-63.
Martin, Glenn Richards. Prevailing Worldviews of Western Society since 1500. London: Triangle Publishing, 2006.
Sánchez, Raquel, Laura Arias, and Alejandro Egea. “The Perduration* of Master Narratives: The ‘Discovery’, Conquest and Colonisation of America in Spanish History Textbooks* Indefinite Continuation.” History Education Research Journal 13, no. 2 (2016): 127-137.
- Herbert and Kerry, “Marxist Philosophy,” 57-68.
- Dickovick and Eastwood, Comparative Politics, 48-49.