Aryans are generally regarded as one among the most important races that influenced the world in one way or the other. As it was the tribe under the despotic Hitler, its prominence rises higher. In Indian context, they have a special role because of their greatest influence in India’s cultural and social life. Most of the historians believe that, it was the Aryans/the Indo-Europeans, who laid the foundation stone of the Indian culture. Aryans entered into India by defeating Dravidians, the existing tribe of that time. Aryans were very much fond of war and adventure and they had also marked their own talents in different fields. They regarded themselves as the noble and superior tribe of the world. Under the leadership of the despotic ruler, Hitler, they spread in most part of the world and especially in the Eastern regions. They also spread the Indo-European, which is now considered as the mother language of many modern languages. The most important Indian language Sanskrit is believed to be originated from the Indo-European. Sometimes they tried to impose their supremacy over others. Though the Aryans first focused in conquering lands, later they began to cultivate a separate identity and culture as their own. Approximately, by 3100 B.C. they entered the Indian territory. After conquering the existing tribes, they focused in spreading their own views regarding regionalism, fanaticism and materialism. This paper is an attempt to find out the theory of Aryan Race in the historical point of view, focusing mainly on India and how they influenced the social and moral aspects of the Indians. It also discusses Hitler’s ideas on Jermyn Aryan Race and his interpretations of the supremacy of the Aryans.
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Aryans were the nomadic people who loved adventure, fighting and horse riding. This adventurous sprit might be the reason for their Indian invasion. It was Max Muller who first used the word ‘Aryans.’ He makes it clear when he says in his book, “Biographies of Words and the Home of the Aryas”, that the “Aryas, I mean neither blood nor bones, nor hair, nor skull; I mean simply those who speak an Aryan language…” (Muller, p. 120). They had regarded themselves as the superior tribe of the world. This superiority complex reached its highest peak at the time of Hitler. They thought that they have many peculiarities that differentiate them from the other races of the world. They had always tried to boost their physical and intellectual qualities before the world. Aryan invasion is the key event in Indian history. The Aryans composed a number of hymns of the Rig-Veda to celebrate their victory over the non-Aryans.
Most of the scholars of the world believe that the Aryans were the tribes existed in the Indus Valley by 3100. B.C. but there are some who suspect that whether there existed a tribe like Aryans. Different historians have recorded different theories regarding the Aryan invasion of India. Some scholars are of the opinion that the Aryans came to India only in 1000 B.C. They entered into India through the northern region and occupied the Indus region around 800B.C. In the opinion of some other historians, the Aryans invaded India between 1500 and 1200 B.C. and they composed the hymns of the Rig-Veda. They entered into India through the central Himalayas and later spread to the northern region of India.
The Aryans slowly began to degenerate the spiritual kingdom in areas of India. They tried very much to reestablish their spiritual kingdom in India. They had to fight with the existing tribes of India to spread their superiority. The myth of Aryans migration explains that the people came to Iran from nearest areas and they established their name there. If one searches the historical records, one can see that Central Asia is considered as the land of Saks, Masagets, Touran, Soghd, Kharasm and thurkistan. These words have no direct relation to the word Aryan. When one goes through the history of Babylonians and Assyrian, one can understand that, one among the largest Iranian races which has been mentioned as Kassi or Kash. Like the Aryans, they were also fair faced and fair haired. Historians point out that the city of this race is the homeland of Aryans. Geologist clarifies the evolution of man in the Iranian Plateau. The supporters of this theory say that due to fall in the temperature, people were forced to move north to the Iranian region.
Most of the historians believe that Aryan invasion was the root cause for the origin of the eastern languages Sanskrit and some of the languages of Europe. They put forward some theories and it says that there was a superior race that came from Caucasus Mountains and later invaded the Indus region. Then they slowly established their culture, formed their own literature, and further they moved to the other parts of India.
The language and religion of the Aryans were similar to that of the Sumerians and Phoenicians. Some of the historians remark that the Sumerians were actually the early Aryans. The physique, culture, religion, language, and writing of the Sumerians were similar to that of the Aryans. Phoenicians resembled the Aryans, in race and speech and were regarded as the introducers of the Aryan civilization and race. There were disputes regarding the region of the Aryans but much of “the Brahmin priests and Indian scholars believe that the Sarasvati and Ganges valley region are the origin of Indian civilization and the Aryan society.” (Knapp).
Hitler is one among the most discussed personalities of the twentieth century. His words and deeds had a great impact on the world. His views on religion, racism, his own principle that the Aryans are the superior race of the world, etc., have been well discussed among the intellectuals as well as historians of the world. Hitler regarded Aryans as the superior race of the world. According to him, Aryans were different from the other tribes physically, mentally and spiritually.
Aryan race theory can be considered as the most flourishing theories of the 19th century. These Aryans are generally named as the synonym of Indo-European. This race theory was formed for the White race. Aryans followed strict principles under Hitler, the Nazi exponent. When they reached in India they had tried much to preserve those principles. First of all they tried to take over their white supremacy. But later these Aryans were forced to mix with the Indians, and it changed them to brown Aryans. The white Aryans always maintained superiority over the black natives by means of the caste system. But it was not like the apartheid existed in many countries. Hitler had contempt over the brown Aryans of India. He turned down the invitation of Subhash Chandra Bose, the freedom fighter and leftist congress leader of India of that time, to collaborate with the Indians. At the same time the anti-Hindu polemicists used the ambiguous term, ‘Aryans’ effectively against the Hindus.
The Aryan racism has been existing for many years. Even now one can find the remnants of it in some modern countries. It was the Aryans who brought the Vedas and many other Hindu holy books. Nowadays black men appear in films like Mahabharata, which were once against the Aryan principles, and were strictly prohibited by Hitler. In such films, the actors were selected even from Africa. So it marks a sea change in the concept of the people towards racism.
The Aryan invasion had brought out many changes in India’s social life. They had knowledge, intelligence, and skill. They were a group of united, religious people. They were constant in striving for the development. There orderliness, planning and unity were excellent which helped them to acquire the greatest position. Trautmann marks his firm conviction that “language, religion, and culture are of cardinal importance in Indo-European/Aryan identity; the British colonial administration encountered a mixed population in India, not racially pure Aryans.” (Nandi).
Aryans had been engaged in business transactions with the inhabitants of other parts of the world. Those transactions were really helpful in developing Indian culture and society. But one cannot say that the Aryan invasion has brought a total change in Indian culture. The basic characteristics of Indian culture remained unchanged even after the Aryan invasion. With the advent of the Aryans, there occurred some notable changes in the Indians. They learned a new life style, tradition of rites, meditation, faith, and different types of rituals. The most important benefit was in the case of knowledge, which burst out quickly. Another benefit of the Aryan advent was that, it introduced philosophy which enhanced forbearance and tolerance. It has the importance even in the present Indian scenario. If one looks deep into the Indian history, one can easily understand that the Dravidian-Aryan culture was the keystone of Indian culture. The rich Indian culture has attracted many of the invaders, including Alexander the Great, the Macedonian King. Indian social life, under the Aryans influenced Hitler too much especially, philosophy, poetry, sculpture, architecture, theatre and literature etc.
The Nazi invaders had a deep influence over the nations they conquered. The people of the country were well aware of the fact that the Nazi invaders were devoid of any humanitarian considerations and they never respected the international war laws. Their main aim was to expand far to the East politically and economically and thus enlarging the Nazi Germany. To establish their supremacy, the Nazis attacked the Jews whenever they got the opportunity and the words of Robert W. Batch makes it clear when he says that: “the Jews, they believe, are the children of Satan, intent on world domination through the subversion of white Christian civilization. Nonwhites, sometimes called the “mud races,” are simply pawns in the Jewish plot.” (Balch).
The contempt of the Nazis against the Jews is clearly expressed in these lines. During 1930s Germany acquired a brightening status wrapped with technological modernity. Hitler and Nazi party conquered the Germans physically and spiritually. Under the threat of guns and tanks the Germans regained its unity and culture. According to Hitler , Aryans were the master race in the world. In Hitler’s point of view Germans lost its vigor for a short time because of marrying non-Germans. Hitler tried to spread the idea of ‘pure Aryans’. Germans claimed that Aryan race are tall slim and long legged. They have a narrow forehead and a smooth long air. According to Hitler the pure Aryan would give up his individualistic freedoms for the welfare of the community. Hitler never fails to describe Aryans. Hitler evaluates the Aryan ancestry not by language, culture, wealth and lifestyle but Hitler believes that people of Germany were citizens by blood. Hitler strongly opposed internationalization. Hitler wants all Germans to be racially pure because he wants to acquire the idea of ‘super perfect race. Hitler develops his racial ideology about Aryan race on the basis of the basic principles of blood. Hitler comments that race was not only a political issue but it is the foundation of their ancestry. Hitler claimed that Germans contain a kind of spiritual energy. In his work Raj Bhopal rightly comments the basic principles of Germans idea about Aryan race. He says: “Hitler attributed everything worthwhile in human culture to the Aryan. While stating that it was idle to argue which race started human culture, he then claimed that it was the Aryan.” (Bhopal).
The given statement justifies Aryans’ belief that that the beginning of human culture is from the Aryans. Therefore they claim both physical and spiritual superiority over other races. Hitler thinks that the leadership of the world should be in the hand of those people who possessed the best mind. His own view is that Aryans are the most powerful and pure. In his way of thinking there was only one superior race in the world named Aryans. The exponents of modern science, art, technology and inventions are only the product of a group of people who were originated from a particular and ancient human race. Ancient Aryan race in Germany faces the cruelty of the existing authority. So naturally the Aryans want to prevent the evils of the white race. The following quotation makes the idea clear. It says: “To prevent the genocide of the white race, Aryans must reawaken their racial consciousness, join together as one people, and steel themselves for the ultimate battle to save the race.” (Balch).
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The given statement reveals that the rise of Aryans is a necessity of their nation.
Hitler influences the Germans by shaping them to hate all non-Germans. He believes the supremacy of Aryan ancestry. Hitler follows the doctrines of fear and terror. His own Nazi army kills more than six million Jewish people. He is a man who tries to conquer not only his own Germany but the whole Europe. Hitler and his Nazi generals try to follow rational ideology about war. Hitler’s idea of an Eastern Empire influences many German people very much. Hitler believes in the racial superiority of the Aryans and the submissiveness of other races. Hitler advocates the Pan- German philosophy that already spread in Germany. Hitler’s Pan–German ideology influences many modern authorities and dictators. Regionalism is the most dreadful social problem in the modern world. This social evil wraps not only the European countries but a number of African countries also. Hitler is a great leader. He tries to convince the majority of Germans to follow his philosophy. There is a striking fact that Hitler fails to convey his ideas a more positive way. Hitler’s leadership quality formed not only his evilness, but an unending thirst for a supreme power. In case of India, one can see the great influence of Hitler and his Aryan ancestry. They contribute a new life style, language, administration system and the field of education. In short, Hitler is a man most representative of not only his own time but the modern time also.
It is possible to find a lot of historical and political reasons behind the formation and the growth of Aryan race in Germany. The following statement points out the deep psychological reason by the formation of Aryan race-myth in Germany. It says: “There was a profound psychological reason for the spread of the Aryan race-myth in Germany. Fifteen hundred years of German history had left unhappy memories in the minds of the people who, by the end of the Middle Ages, were split into some two hundred separate principalities with their “particularist” loyalties.”(Who are the Germans).
Their fifteen hundred year old memories of German history provide them the picture of more than two hundred separated nations. The Germans were haunted by the reality of their inability to form a united state.
To conclude, one can see that the Aryans were a prominent race that existed in the 19th century. They were a different group of people who tried most to establish their own mark in the world history. They exerted a great influence in India and its rich and diverse heritage and social life. Though their aim was to conquer India and loot its wealth, they contributed much to the Indian civilization. Rig-Veda is the best example of their literary contribution. Rig-Veda is regarded as the most important teachings of Hinduism even now. It is understood that they were chivalrous and adventurous. Wherever they went, they had tried to establish their own superiority, that is, Aryans are the superior race of the world. They had the misinterpretation that, if they do not mix with the other races, they shall be the one and only race that can definitely make changes and finally conquer the world itself. To affirm this regionalism, they moved away from mixing with the other tribes. They also understood that the mother language, Indo-European was the contribution of the Aryans. With the spreading of language, they could also spread their customs and traditions. The remnants of the Aryan race are visible even now. The Aryan literature was a notable one of this kind. They had caused a great influence over the nations they conquered. When one attempts to understand the theory of Aryan race in the historical point of view, it is evident that it is behind the World War I and World War II. The theory of Adolph Hitler on racial supremacy of Aryans is not without proof because, from central Europe Aryans were able to invade the Indian continent and establish their empire. But his interpretations of the supremacy of the Aryans on other races eventually led Nazism to its inevitable doom. Even now one can find the symptoms of Aryan supremacy in the modern world.
- Balch, Robert W. The Rise and Fall of Aryan Nations: A Resource Mobilization Perspective.
- Bhopal, Raj. Hitler On Race And Health In Mein Kampf:A Stimulus To Anti-Racism In The Health Professions.
- Knapp, Stephen. Death of the Aryan Invasion Theory: More Evidence for the Original Home of the Vedic Aryans. 2008. Web.
- Muller, Max. Biographies of Words and the Home of the Aryas. 1888.
- Nandi, Santibhusan. Controversy over Indo-European/Aryan: Race Science versus Philology. Who are the Germans?