Epoxies as polymeric materials have been known for quite a while and applied successfully to create strong adhesives (Quan et al. 4493). That being said, epoxies also have disadvantages such as low levels of fracture toughness (Chen et al. 4276). By adding core-shell rubber (CSR) particles (Quan and Ivankovic 16) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), one will be able to address the identified problems and improve the quality of the adhesive (Zakaria et al. 57). Therefore, exploring the options that CSR and CNTs have to offer is crucial.
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Epoxy resin has been used in engineering as a “matrix for polymer composites” (Zakaria et al. 57) for a significant period. However, with the discovery of nanoparticles, new opportunities have been opened. The introduction of CSR and CNTs into the structure of epoxies allows enhancing their properties considerably, therefore, opening a plethora of opportunities for improving the quality of products (Gojny et al. 2370).
Quan et al.’s study show that nanotubes and the epoxy matrix allow for building a very strong matrix (Quan et al. 4497-4498). Furthermore, cavitated CSR nanoparticles allow for the creation of a shear band and the increase in the shear band zone, therefore, preventing the increase in the fragility of the material. The introduction of the said elements to the epoxy also results in a drop in the MWCNT’s mobility, as the study results show.
Thermal and Dielectric Properties’ Improvement
An increase in the tensile and flexural strength of epoxy after the incorporation of CSR and CNTs into its structure was reported by Zakaria et al. (61) in their study of the subject matter. Therefore, the mechanical properties of epoxy improve greatly with the addition of the said elements. Furthermore, the levels of thermal stability are enhanced in epoxy with the help of CSR and CNTs (Zakaria et al. 60-61).
Gojny et al. (2366-2367) state that the stiffness and resistance to fractures can be increased in epoxy to a considerable extent once nanotubes are incorporated into its structure. Therefore, the general durability levels rise significantly with the increase in the amount of CSR and CNTs added to the solution.
Cavitation and Particle-Matrix Debonding
There is also evidence that the use of CSR and CNTs allows for a debonding and bridging resin particles in a manner that contributes to the enhancement of epoxy’s properties. The cavitation process creates a structure that triggers the debonding process (Lu et al. 3055).
S-CSR Particles: Toughening
The use of CSR and CNTs triggers an impressive enhancement of the compressing properties of epoxy. Chen et al. (4283) explain that cryogenic temperature rises as nanotubes are incorporated into the structure of epoxy. As a result, epoxy toughens.
Shear Band Yielding and Plastic Void Growth
Finally, one must bring up the fact that the shear band yielding of epoxy increases as CSR and CNTs are added to it. The identified phenomenon is achieved by achieving plastic void growth (Quan and Ivankovic 17). Thus, CSR and CNTs must be viewed as compounds that allow improving the quality of epoxy significantly.
The ways of enhancing epoxies have been considered. An overview of recent studies on the subject matter has shown that the introduction of CSR and CNTs to epoxies allows for increasing the strength of the adhesive, as well as enhancing some of its other properties. Particularly, the opportunities for increasing its thermal resistance, dielectric properties, and durability need to be mentioned among the crucial discoveries. The further exploration of the options that CSR and CNTs provide for creating epoxies should be viewed as a priority.
Chen, Jianmeizi, et al. “The Mechanical Properties and Toughening Mechanisms of an Epoxy Polymer Modified with Polysiloxane-Based Core-Shell Particles.” Polymer, vol. 54, no. 16, 2013, pp. 4276-4289.
Gojny, Florian H. et al. “Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Epoxy-Composites: Enhanced Stiffness and Fracture Toughness at Low Nanotube Content.” Composites Science and Technology, vol. 64, no. 15, 2004, pp. 2363-2371.
Quan, Dong, and Alojz Ivankovic. “Effect of Core-shell Rubber (CSR) Nano-particles on Mechanical Properties and Fracture Toughness of an Epoxy Polymer.” Polymer, vol. 66, no. 1, 2015, pp. 16-28.
Quan, Dong, et al. “Carbon Nanotubes and Core–Shell Rubber Nanoparticles Modified Structural Epoxy Adhesives.” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 52, no. 8, 2017, pp 4493-4508.
Zakaria, Muhammad Razlan, et al. “Comparative Study of Graphene Nanoparticle and Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Filled Epoxy Nanocomposites Based on Mechanical, Thermal and Dielectric Properties.” Composites Part B, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 57-66.