In essence, there are many definitions of peace. In the context of this paper, peace is defined as insubstantial attribute which is hard to compute or otherwise quantify. Peace is usually defined as the nonexistence of war, random violence and actions of terrorism.
However, this characterization is narrow and, does not put into consideration the major causes of conflict and sustainability of worldwide peace, which is not a sufficient necessity for peace. When defined dynamically, peace calls for existence of justice and fairness in accordance to the rule of law (Richie, 2004, pp.669-675).
Sustenance of tourism has become an issue of equivalent significance in both developing and developed countries. This essay is designed for both. However, the sense of balance of concerns may differ between them.
The resolve of this paper is to provide administrations with leadership and structure for the growth of strategies that sustains tourism as a toolbox of mechanisms they can use in the implementation of those.
Over time, tourism has increasingly become a fundamental part of our lives with the tourism industry being said to be among the fastest growing global industries.
A report documented by the International Task Force on Sustainable Tourism Development (ITF-STD)-Marrakech (2009) documents that 903 Million tourist travelled in 2007 and the number increased in 2008 as well as 2009 in spite of the economic and financial hiccups that were faced in between that duration.
Additionally, the report further estimates that the number may sky-rocket to as high as 1.6 billion people by the year 2020.This is majorly based on the various forms of activities that people engage in tourism thus giving us an ample time for relaxation.
Lindsay (2003) additionally states that global tourism generates close to 3 trillion dollars while it importantly contributes to approximately 11% of the global Gross National Product which makes it the largest industry in the world.
Even more importantly, tourism has been a great income generating activity for not just individuals but also corporations and even governments (Dabour, 2003, pp.24-30). Recent studies also attest to the immense progress of the tourism industry in spite of the admitted presence of challenges and limitations in the industry.
Tourism occurs when people choose to move from one place to another visiting with friends and family purposely for play, business, study, work, service and, pilgrimage (Rodriguez & Cruz, 2007, pp.824-826).
Tourist destinations range from simple areas like recreation centers, parks, museums to hiking trails and resorts depending on the nature of tourism and the individuals or groups of people involved in it (Byrd & Cardenas, 2009; and Sharpley & Telfer, 2002, pp.5-10).
Whether someone travels short distances or miles alone, with family members, friends, strangers or colleagues; tourism mostly entail meetings and various interactions among various populations with varying age groups, spiritual traditions, ethnic backgrounds, ability, cultural heritages, interests and educational levels (Chavez, 1999).
Travelers or tourists can engage in new familiarities, gain information of other cultures, countries or regions learn the importance of loving the environment, developing new friendships and promoting peaceful relationships among people (Butler, 2006, pp.30-35).
Those who travel also contribute, through one way or another, to the commercial growth and improvement of the public and region when spending some substantial amount of money to provide a variety of basic needs like as food, clothing and shelter among many other essentials (Solberg & Preuss, 2007, pp.213-215; and Darowski et al., 2006).
Socioeconomic progress, especially when it helps in poverty alleviation, hugely promotes cultural peace since most people are satisfied. In other words, tourism helps in the creation of a peaceful environment in a myriad of ways. According to Bieger and Wittmer (2006, pp.42-44), the creation of a global society means that tourism businesses have the ability to operate globally and in a peaceful way.
The same authors also say that most people in the tourism business have been working together with stakeholders and shareholders from various regions to create policies leading to the eradication of violence, skirmishes and wars while concomitantly promoting sustainability, thus assuring the well-being of all participants locally and globally among the involved communities thus promoting peace in overall (Boberg & Cavinato, 1986; and Moss et al., 2003).
Learning and giving services towards the creation of peaceful environments are among the major goals of persons engaging in all dimension of the work which generate harmony through tourism, inclusive of those linked with learning institutions which teach the young to serve in the sports, hospitality, tourism, and recreation businesses (Holden, 2000, pp.247-250).
Faculties and students who have a stake in commitment to goals and purposes defined here have a distinctive prospect of instilling peaceful values throughout the students’ learning experiences (Koeman, 1985, and Grimble & Chan, 1995, pp.113-120).
Koeman furthers states that individuals who labor in the tourism trades enjoy the benefits and services of their business endeavors, have congregated over the recent times with stakeholders and shareholders in the tourism (such as governments, learning institutions, other business-oriented industries, community front-runners, religious and spiritual leaders, peace investigators and citizens) to discuss peace-related issues in tourism.
Resultantly, this has helped in increasing their understanding of peace in the tourism industry through the objection against violent practices (Gibson & Bentley, 2006, pp.63-70; and Hall, 2008, pp.10-20).
According to Knowles and Curtis (1999, pp.87-96), these proponents of peace through tourism in the current world have reportedly been increasingly united in seeking to promote a viable peace while reaping the joys and benefits related with mobility and recreation. Below are some of the methods that are normally used by these stakeholders and shareholders to proliferate peace in the tourism industry.
Firstly, this is normally done through honor spiritual customs, reclaiming of sanctified spaces, working together with others so as to foster development, protection and support and establishment of a peaceful tourism environment (McElroy, 2006, pp.61-70).
Secondly, there is the recognition and protection of various cultural spaces and customs (Hritz & Cecil, 2008). This helps in fostering multiplicity in the tourism industry, inspiring tourists to travel more and working with others for development, preservation, protection, and apt support for cruciaal heritage sites (Koeman, 1985).
Thirdly, it is done through decrease poverty by employing people from the local communities as a means of generating income, supporting the growth of local and small-businesses which eventually contribute to profits in the tourism industry as well poverty alleviation of the people thus helping them avoid unnecessary violent endeavors which reduce the promotion of peace (Darowski et al., 2006).
Fourthly, the aforementioned parties normally endeavor to eliminate situations that may lead to actions of non-peaceful tourism endeavors such as violence and war while teaching in conflict resolution, and working with community groups as well as governments to restore parts impaired by wars in the tourism industry (Lindsay, 2003).
Fifthly, the shareholders and stakeholders usually endeavor in promoting sustainable growth by scheduling growth plans with care for the environment in awareness, preserving rare animal and plant species while supporting impartial environmental ideologies and practices which help in facilitating peaceful coexistence in the industry.
Seventhly and lastly, the involved parties tend to strive in educating people about delicate ecosystems by encouraging ecotourism while promoting a peaceful environment by involving the native people in decision-making processes. Through such endeavors, ignorance is greatly dealt with while less resistance and wars are faced from the natives (UNWTO, 2011, pp.2-5).
Throughout the universe, people who work in almost all aspects of tourism and hospitality businesses are help in shaping the attitudes, values, and beliefs and ideals of a peaceful tourism environment(Dabour, 2003, pp.24-30).
Darbour further asserts that such people tend to endeavor in identifying solutions to dire social, political economic and environmental challenges in the world while striving to meet with other like-minded people to increase their knowledge about peace as a crucial aspect of the tourism industry.
These activities are only a few of the many endeavors that people currently engage in both at local and international levels so as to encourage the continuous growth of a peaceful tourism environment (Kim, 2010, p.1).
This viewpoint of peace also, according to Richie (2004, pp.670-675), somewhat refers to the state in which a human being is considered to be at peace with himself. Richie says that it additionally covers the concept of law and order. Richie further asserts that this conception of peace does not however exclude the aspect of violence since soldiers can have peace with themselves even in battlefields (pp.675-7680).
Moreover, there is the concept of peace in the tourism being the absence of some form of collective violence. To this regard, major emphasis is made on the violence amongst human groups, individuals and nations as well as racial and ethnic groups. This type of peace shall be referred to as negative peace (Leslie, 2007; & Leslie, 2005).
In arguing regarding collective violence; most authors seem to use this word in such a way that it does not cover infrequent homicide like un-patterned individual violence.
According to Dobson (1998, pp.129-135), it is the change from this kind of violence to the violent behavior across human frontiers that it becomes group violence which deviates from the essence of peace. It can thus be said that through organized violence, peace is believed not to exclude aspects such as violent behaviors (Middleton &Lickerish, 2007, pp.50-55).
Another concept of peace that is not sufficiently defined is peace considered as a synonym for good practices in the world especially in the cooperation and integration amongst people (Page & Connell, 2009, pp.30-35). Again, emphasis is usually made on the absence of violence. This type of peace shall be referred to as positive peace. Positive violence is apparently a widespread concept particularly in underprivileged groups.
Based on this viewpoint, the first and the second concepts would be easily and readily accepted in over privileged groups (Fairhurst et al., 2006, pp.315-320). According to Lim and Patterson (2008, pp.117-120), such groups are normally more interested in the existence of law, stability and order since acts of violence (through the lack of a peaceful environment) would have a direct impact on them.
A peaceful tourism environment, which is facilitated through is not- worthily rapidly relevance in the current business-oriented world with many policy-makers and organizations increasingly voicing their concerns towards the establishment of a peaceful tourism environment.
The UN World Tourism Organization, UN’s branch that specifically deals with international tourism endeavors, is among such entities and, over the recent times, this branch of UN has been able to do a lot in the creation of a peaceful tourism environment especially in war-prone countries (UNWTO, 2011, p.1).
The ideology that tourism promotes local and international promotes peace has been extensively deliberated among scholars (Chavez, 1999). Chavez further states that, although there is inadequate research showing the specific circumstances in which tourism can foster peace, there is a prevalent conviction that it pays to this far.
For example, travellers contribute to promotion of peacetime through tourism when they possess the compassionate attitude which considers the ‘other’ as a chance for emotional development, and meeting with the ‘other’ dealt with in a peaceful way (McElroy, 2006, pp.65-70).
According to Mehmetoglu (2004, pp.70-75), many scholars and macro-economists tend to support tourism as a influential force with the potential to reduce suspicion and tension in the tourism industry by having a positive impact in state politics, international relationships, regional businesses and world harmony.
In fact, a good number of these scholars have been able to propagate ideas that can help in fostering and developing peaceful relations between separate countries so as to help advancing the tourism industry.
However, empirical tests have not all the time supported peace through leisure industry thesis and some researchers have claimed that tourism can sometimes limit peace locally and internationally based on the many bureaucracies entailed in the industry (Chavez, 1999).
Whereas good relationships are often established in the tourism industry through engagement in various peaceful tourist activities; instances of bad blood amongst tourists with administrators or the locals have been reported in many countries and regions (Boberg & Cavinato, 1986, pp.12-15).
An example of such is the conflicts that often occur due to differences in religious and social beliefs amongst groups such as Christians and Muslims.
It is also hard to make the instance that tourism could avert conflict. The kind of theory used is one of a close analysis of contemporary social endeavors as the existence of justice.
This mainly reveals the development of the following four major themes: attention to good relationships with one’s personality and with other people as well; care for the communal benefits; safeguarding of global safety; and engagement in positive endeavors which promote, preserve, protect, and withstand a culture of goodwill; and finally, respect for human constitutional rights in regard to peaceful touristic endeavors.
In order to make the industry of tourism more sustainable and simply not about managing and controlling the adverse impacts of the industry; it must be understood that tourism is a crucial industry where local communities benefit, socially and economically, and this helps raise awareness as well as support the environment conservation (Wall, 1997, pp.483-485).
Moreover, in the tourism sector, economic progress and safety of the environmental should not be perceived as opposing forces. Instead, they should be followed progressively as aspirations that are mutually reinforcing actions and policies, which aim to strengthen benefits and help to reduce the costs in tourism sector (Toh et al., 2001, 426-432; and Swarbrooke, 1999, pp.30-40).
Furthermore, massive growth can be predicted in the tourism industry by the year 2020, provision of excellent chances for spreading affluence but present a lot of challenges and impending pressures to the local communities and the environment if mismanaged (Stuart & Nicoletta, 2006, pp.155-160). Climate change is acknowledged as a chiefly global issue with important repercussions for tourism (Selby, 2004, pp.67-69).
There is also an amassed admiration of the role of tourism when addressing world poverty since it reportedly fetches revenue to the poorest communities (Solberg & Preuss, 2007, p.213; Faulker, 2001, pp.135-140; and Fennell & Dowling, 2003, pp.33-40). Sustenance of tourism has become an issue of equivalent significance in both developing and developed countries. Below are some strategies that can be used in tourism sustainability.
Tourism and sustainability: This expresses the meaning of sustainability to tourism and why administrations require addressing it. This presents some key ideologies and programs for further sustainable tourism.
Policy inferences of a workable tourism plan: The twelve goals for additional practicable tourism issue as which are conversed in turn and strategy parts relevant to each of them identified.
Structures and policies for more workable tourism: It mainly entails the strategic creation of good governmental structures which can then be used in facilitating sustainable tourism practices needed to enhance progress. In doing so, careful consideration should be taken on the association between both international and local structures.
Influencing sustainable tourism: It majorly looks at the procedure of mounting tourism strategy that cherishes sustainability and recognizes some of the tactical choices which are eminently required.
Instruments for further sustainability of the tourism industry: An expansive explanation is given as a set of tools and how they can be relevantly used by governments. These include the usage of sustainable indicators, proper infrastructural provisions and planning, establishing proper regulations and legislations among others.
In recapitulation, both tourism and sustainable development are key subjects in today’s business-oriented world (Pradeep & Hu, 2009, pp.561-565). Gathering data on how to guide this document has been a result of looking at widespread practices by regimes everywhere in the world, in the advancement of strategies and application of mechanisms (Paraskevas & Arendell, 2007, pp.1560-1573).
Tourism is defined largely as travel-for-leisure which is supported by a multi-layered global service industry (Park & Boo, 2010, pp.95-100).
In conclusion, tourism has undoubtedly been an extremely multifaceted phenomenon where personalities and worldviews can be constantly represented, reconfirmed, consumed, modified and negotiated. It is important to acknowledge the positive impact of tourism as leading global industry.
However, for purposes of facilitating progress, it is imperative to maintain a realistic and non- glorifying attitude of its economic, socio-cultural, political and environmental, impacts (Chavez, 1999).
Scholars and other concerned parties have to ensure that the tourism stakeholders and shareholders are aware of the difference between the grandiloquence power of currently prevalent discourses (for example, peace-through-tourism, eco-tourism, and sustainable tourism among realities on the ground).
This research is clear indicator that, in the tourism industry, there is a lot of tension. These internal battles come on national, local, and global levels and, distinctively from culture; they also relate to race, social class, ethnicity, and gender (Page &Connell, 2009, pp.25-30). It is contradictory for an industry with conflict to claim to be privileged to foster a peaceful global tourism environment.
While not opposing the possibilities tourism has, it is therefore ethically advisable to address the many problems hindering peace the industry while striving to advance its strengths.
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