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Tourism Industry and what way to travel is better Report (Assessment)


Impact of Transportation on the Tourism Industry

The Chicago convention that contains the basic rules for civil aviation signed by Franklin Roosevelt in December 1944 emphasized that the future development of air transport will create good relationship between nations and people around the world.

Air transport has become the foundation of the entire global society in terms of communication, economic, and social progress. Air travel created wealth and disclosed their potential for trade and tourism aspects. One of the cheapest ways to travel is using roads.

In Britain, road transport for tourists is fulfilled by coaches, car hire, and taxis. Britain has route coaches that operate in different destinations and has the largest road transport network for its tourists. London buses provide the urban network being a convenient way to get around the city offering sight seeing opportunity (Page & Lumsdon, 2004, p. 115).

The role in tourism and travel industry

A study done by the Oxford Economic Forecasting on Air Transport Action Group, describes the main benefits of air transport and the way it should be sustainable. This Air Transport Action Group is a combination of independent companies and organizations in the air transport industry whose main objective is to improve infrastructure in a responsible way.

Its global members include “airlines, airports, navigation services, travel, tourism institutes, manufacturers, ground transportation, and communication providers” (Parsch 2011, p. 64). The aviation sector and the civil aerospace are the main sectors of air transport industry.

Development of Air transport in tourism

Some factors have contributed to the rapid growth of this industry because of “increased demand for trade and leisure purposes”. Increased competition and efficiency have reduced airfares and improved trade in politically stable countries thereby promoting tourism.

Trade done globally through purchases of goods and services such as energy sector, has grown due to the purchase of aircraft fuel as well as employment through aviation fuel (Wickham 2001, p. 106). IT in computer systems or people who manufacture retail goods are also a way of job creation.

As the industry is in demand, its contribution to the global economy is great because the GDP per employer is higher. Employees are well trained, skilled and experienced. The industry carries out intensive research and development (Honey, 1999, p. 301).

Countries are able to take part in the global market by means of providing way to the most important markets and promoting globalization of production. Countries can specialize in activities that are beneficial to their economies and trade with countries producing other goods and services.

Improved air transport also enlarges the market in which companies operate enabling them to exploit other economies. It promotes competition to companies thereby boosting their efficiency. It improves efficiency in industries as it is easier and faster to transport and deliver goods (Cater & Lowman, 1994, p. 611).

Air travel is a trade facilitator that enables markets to get products to the market more quickly to their customers. According to North American Free Trade Agreement, many trade barriers have been removed. As most air cargos consist of manufactured products, world trade has improved because of air transport.

Survey on financial and businesspersons indicate that they do consider air travel when meeting with their clients face-to-face, which is essential for winning new businesses and enhancing client relationships (Mowforth & Munt, 1998, p. 234).

The contribution of air travel on tourism has improved because tourism depends fully on air transport to bring visitors. On the other hand, the transport industry depends on tourism to generate demand for its services.

For example, Costa Rica is the second largest source of foreign exchange that provides resources needed for maintaining its national parks (Holden 2000, p.16).

Britain has numerous historical monuments, royal palaces and the world’s largest museums visited by tourists in the whole world. Air transport is the main means in the tourism industry.

London has the greatest attraction sites in the world and the most visited modern art gallery, the Tate modern. The Brecon Beacon National Park in Whales is the most beautiful site in UK. It comprises ancient castles, market towns, and the craggy peaks (Cater & Lowman 1994, p. 400).

Jet aircrafts

Recent modernized aircrafts are responsible for reducing environmental impacts by curbing the reduction of noise during takeoff and landing. They use less fuel and thus emission of carbon monoxide emitted in the air is reduced. By improving air travel management, the use of fuel has reduced.

Transport is the main contributor to the advancement of modern society (Thomson & Martin 2010, p. 218). The introduction of jet airlines has become essential to economic progress.

The demand of air transport has increased rapidly on the global economy promoting efficiency, movement of people, exchange of currencies, goods, and services in markets around the entire world (Page & Lumsdon 2004, p. 310).

The development of jet aircrafts has led to the emergence of a new jet called the easy jet, which will create 120 jobs at Manchester airport. According to the Chief Executive officer Carolyn Mc Call, the aircraft will increase the efficiency of air transport in Manchester. This will benefit businesses and increase the number of business travelers (Fennell 2003, p. 345).

The advancement and growth in the global airline industry have encouraged major technological innovation. In 1950, jet aircrafts were introduced for commercial use in the airline industry.

Later in the 1970s, wide body jumbo jets were introduced in the Global airline industry (Button 1993, p. 95). There are two types of fighter aircrafts, namely, Rocket powered fighters and jet powered fighters. Aircraft jets have been classified by generation for historical purposes.

The first generation fighter jets were used in the First World War while jets of the second generation were used in the Korean War. The third and the fourth generations of aircrafts were characterized by sophisticated avionics and weapon systems developed by Colonel John Boyd.

The fifth generation jet fighters introduced in 2005 were advanced due to the new technology and integrated systems of weapons (Mowforth & Munt 1998, p. 63).

Air jets on the budget of the United States will cost around $150 for constructing its flyaway unit and sharing the cost among the eight country partners will be at risk.

The United States Air Force budget in 2010 projects the cost to be from 150 to 200 millions over the planned production of F-35, and as the production cost increases there is likely to be a delay.

The delay may lead to a fighter gap in which other countries and America will have less jets fighters for their use. The last sixth generation jet fighter is programmed to be introduced in the United States Air force and Navy by 2025-2030.

Road transport in tourism

A sit has already been mentioned, one of the cheapest ways to travel is by the using surface transportation. During the Olympic Games and paralytics games in 2012, London has boasted numerous visitors and tourists from all over the world via air travel, however, the city is admired and shown using surface types of transport, in other words, road transport.

Visiting Britain helps in promoting tourism partners for the entire Britain and the world. Both international and domestic visitors use air and road transport to improve tourism in Britain. Travel mole is the largest global online community that gives information on travel and tourism industry (Fennell 2003, p. 511).

Transport and road transport services depend on the demand generated by other economic activities. Transportation cost is a component of a transaction that is important in market sand businesses. According to Culpan (1987, p. 546), modes for transportation and management are the major link with the international tourism.

Development and accessibility in transportation have eased travelling. Road Transportation helps tourists to get to their desired destinations and areas; it also has an impact on tourism experience as stated by Page and Lumsdon (2004, p. 72).

This explains the reason people visit a particular place. Thus, there appears the Increased demand for road transport that is being used by tourists.

The improvement and maintaining the road network have increased the number of regional and international visitors, tutoring a destination has led to the fact that the number of quality roads has been increased. The increased growth in tourism sector will see the creation of new tourist products (Cater & Lowman, 1994, p. 420).

Economic Benefits

Air travel provides the only international network in tourism and the global business world wide as it facilitates economic growth. It has boosted the tourism industry because about 40% of the tourists travel by air (Wisner, Tan & Leong 2008, p. 56).

It has created direct and indirect employment both in services and the manufacturing of aircraft systems, purchasing of goods and services from industries and companies and improved social welfare through spending on industry employees.

Through the direct and indirect job creation globally, air travel has created tourism jobs thereby improving the growth of the economy.

Compared to other sectors, “air transport as a capital-intensive business has a high productivity per worker” (Holden 2000, p. 204). Air transport uses resources efficiently as compared to any other industry in Britain.

The advantage of air travel compared to road and rail is that it covers the whole of its infrastructure cost. Modern aircrafts use less fuel compared to the modern vehicles in the market therefore making it more efficient in fuel consumption.

Using air transport is the only means of transport in far away places which are used in assisting social services. It improves the living standards of people by eliminating poverty. Air travel broadens one’s horizons by numerous and endless destinations all over the world thus connecting people, in particular, friends, relatives, etc.

By means of air transport, sustainable development is attained by facilitating trade and tourism in generating economic growth. In emergency cases such as earthquakes, floods and disastrous wars, air transport delivers humanitarian aid relief and ensures quick medical supplies when needed ( Mowforth & Munt 1998, p. 290).

Conclusion

The development of air transport and road transport on trade and tourism has promoted economic and social progress and contributed to the advancement of modern day society by providing reliable information to governments in order to take responsibility in making decisions.

“Air travel has also responded to the growing demand for mobility by investing in safety and security improvements, new technology and business” ( Mowforth & Munt 1998, p. 292).

List of References

Button, K 1993, Transport: The environment and economic policy, Edward Elgar, New York.

Cater, E & Lowman, G 1994, Ecotourism: A sustainable option? Wiley J & Sons, London.

Fennell, D 2003, Ecotourism: An introduction, Routledge, London.

Holden, A. 2000, Environment and tourism, Routledge, New York.

Honey, M. 1999, Ecotourism and sustainable development: Who owns paradise? Island Press, Washington.

Mowforth, M & Munt, I 1998, Tourism and sustainability: new tourism in this world, Routledge, New York.

Page, S & Lumsdon, L 2004, Tourism and transport: Issues and agenda for the new millennium, Boston: Elsevier

Parsch, A 2011, Non-Standard DOD Aircraft Designations Mitchell’s Theory: Air & Space Power Course, College of Aerospace Doctrine, New York.

Stephen, T 2011, XCLUSIVE: U.S. Air Force combat fleet’s true operational costs revealed, The Dew Line, London.

Thomson, J & Martin, F 2010, Strategic management, (6 edn.), Cengage Learning EMEA, London.

Wickham, PA 2001, Strategic entrepreneurship: A decision making approach to new venture creation and management, Pearson Education, London.

Wisner, J, Tan, K & Leong, G 2008, Principles of supply chain management: A balanced approach, Cengage Learning, New York.

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