Studies define e-government as the use of internet or the World-Wide-Web (WWW) appliances to convey information and deliver services to the people (Li, 2003). In addition, e-government encompasses the utilisation of modern technologies to make possible the effective delivery of governments operations and devolve services and information to the citizens.
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E-government deals with the use of internet and non-internet applications in aiding the government in the delivery of the services (Li, 2003). The concept encompasses communications, use of surveillance systems and application of tracking systems as well as the utilisation of mass and social media to convey information and deliver services to the citizens.
In fact, e-government applies various delivery forms including government-to-citizen or (G2C). In some parameters, the G2C is referred to as the government-to-consumer where the principle of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is applied in managing the relationship between the customers and the business (Basu, 2004). In the context of G2C, the business is the government while the customers are the citizens. The application of the model ensures efficient and effective delivery of government services to the citizens (Basu, 2004). Other models include government-to-business (G2B), government-to-government (G2G) and the government-to-employees (G2E).
The application of new technological advances in the delivery of government services has greater benefits. In fact, the major idea behind adoption and implementation of e-government is to do away with inefficiencies and incompetency associated with analogue services delivery to the citizens. Essentially e-government is applied in order to provide increased portfolio of public services in the manner that is gainful and well organised (Grant & Chau, 2005).
In addition, the concept increases the transparency on services delivery through open information on government dealings as well as policy implementation. Essentially, the benefits of e-government include increased efficiency in services delivery, enhanced services, increased accessibility to public sector services and information as well as increased transparency and accountability (Seifert & Bonham, 2013).
However, the implementations and applications of e-government have various challenges ranging from the supportive IT infrastructures to citizen trust. The complexity and variety of e-government initiatives present a wide range of challenges in the implementation and management of e-government (Moon, 2012). In fact, the challenges in the management and implementation of e-government are categorised in four broad areas including technical, organisational, social and financial.
The technical challenges include ICT infrastructure, privacy and security. In terms of organisation, the challenges include top management support, resistance to change by the public to electronic system, collaboration and lack of qualified personnel and training. Socially, the implementation of e-government has challenges that include digital divide and culture. Financially, the implementation of the e-government involves higher costs.
The successful implementation of e-government depends on citizen trust. In other words, citizen trust is one of the major enablers in the e-government approval and implementation (Warkentin, Gefen, Pavlou & Rose, 2002). According to various theoretical frameworks, trust in e-government has two fundamental dimensions. Essentially, the extent to which the public trust is built depends on the government institutions and available technology. Studies indicate that successful implementation and adoption of e-government depends on a greater degree of citizen trust on both dimensions (Warkentin et al., 2002).
Moreover, the successes of e-government depend on how appropriate measures that look into the public trust are put in place. The citizen trust in government is brought about by establishing appropriate measures that contribute to continuous conviction of public institutions. Similarly, the citizen trust in technology is brought about by proactive provision of relevant knowledge and skills as well as providing a comprehensive and effective legal system (Warkentin et al., 2002).
Research problem statement
As indicated, citizen trust is an absolute necessity for the successful implementation of e-government. As such, it is critical for governments to understand certain factors that influence citizens’ trust in order to implement the e-government initiatives successfully (Hattori & Lapidus, 2004). In the context of e-government, public trusts are in two forms. The forms include trust in government institutions and expertise. Therefore, the influencing factors are within the two dimensions.
One of the significant factors the government should consider is the institutions. The public should trust the government institutions before the e-government is rolled out. In other words, public institutional trust is critical for the success of the e-government implementation (Hattori & Lapidus, 2004).
Privacy and security are also critical issues the government should consider. Citizens are always concerned with privacy and security of their personal information. In this context, privacy is the protection of personal information from possible misuse. On the other hand, security is the ability to ensure that the public sites are free from abuse by other people other than the intended citizens. In fact, privacy and security can be ensured through the adoption of statutes and legislations that put more emphasis on the rights of the public and protection of personal information (Hattori & Lapidus, 2004).
Essentially, factors such as confidence on public institutions, privacy and security, expected benefits, the level of knowledge and skills as well as risks associated with technology influence citizens’ trust on e-government system. As such, governments should proactively build public confidence on its institutions, provide relevant knowledge and skills and put in place a comprehensive and effective legal system in order to implement its e-government framework successfully.
Significance of the study
Full adoption of e-government is not just ensuring technical infrastructures but also other processes including organisational, managerial and social issues (Hattori & Lapidus, 2004). In fact, the implementation of e-government is a multi-stage process. Various studies have indicated several stage processes in which e-government is fully being adopted and implemented. However, infrastructures development, organisational processes, managerial processes and social issues are coined within the stages.
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Infrastructures development involves putting in place and building IT network system that supports e-government processes (Udo, 2011). In addition, infrastructures development involves putting in place IT supporting framework that ensures privacy and security of the e-government systems. Organisational processes involve the readiness of the government and its institutions to full adoption and implementation of e-government systems. Moreover, government commitment and support are critical for successful adoption and implementation of e-government (Layne & Lee, 2011).
The challenges involved in these processes also forms the barriers to full adoption and implementation of e-government. In fact, it is critical to understand these barriers in order to implement the e-government system effectively and successfully (Udo, 2011). Technical barriers such as availability of IT infrastructures, security and privacy of the IT system is critical in building the public trust, which in effect is significant for the successful implementation of e-government.
Essentially, successful implementations of e-government are likely to face technical obscurities including deficiencies in shared standards and compatible infrastructures within departments and among agencies (Hattori & Lapidus, 2004). Moreover, guarantee by the government of security and privacy will not be sufficient unless augmented by practical solutions, lucidity of dealings and autonomous assessment (Layne & Lee, 2011).
Further, the adoption and implementation of e-government is not only a technical issue but also organisational (Hattori & Lapidus, 2004). The organisational challenges include lack of technical support from top management, resistance to change by managers to electronic system, collaboration and deficiency in qualified personnel as well as lack of training on the required competencies (Layne & Lee, 2011).
Top management support involves commitment by leaders and government management for successful implementation of e-government applications. The new advanced technological environment is likely to be resisted by top government employees that cannot easily change from manual system to electronic or digital system associated with e-government (Layne & Lee, 2011). Moreover, cooperation with all partners is critical in successful implementation process of e-government.
Social barriers mainly concern large usability of e-government by the people. The implication is that e-government interface has to be applied by majority of people within the public and government (Rubin & Wang, 2004). Social barriers include factors such as culture, education levels, income of the people and the digital divide. In fact, digital divide is one of the major barriers to the adoption and implementation of e-government due to lack of technical knowledge on usability of new forms of government services.
Lack of financial support is also significant barriers to the implementation of e-government. The successful implementation of e-government can only achieve its goal when financial resources are available (Rubin & Wang, 2004). In fact, the implementation of e-government is costly process and should be supported by budgetary terms and policies. In other words, without proper funding, the implementation of e-government system may stall. Therefore, adequate investments should be put in place in order to attain the intended goal (Rubin & Wang, 2004).
The introduction will be composed of background of Study, problem statement, purpose of study, research objectives and questions, significance of study, scope of study, limitation of study and definition of terms. For instance, the statement of purpose will explain what the study will find or show. In other words, statement of purpose will indicate the aim of the study.
Essentially, chapter one of the theses deals with aims and objectives of the study as well as the study hypothesis. Moreover, the purpose or significance of the research study will explain why the topic is worth considering and what is to be learnt from the topic. Besides, the purpose or significance of the research study will explain what the new knowledge will add to the field of knowledge that already exists on the subject area or what new perspective will be brought to the area of the study.
In addition, the statement of the problem, significance, purpose and background should be supported by previous works majorly academic researches that have been done in the area. The comparison need to be done with other results. In other words, the comparison should be made on what are similar issues and solutions. From the comparisons, the big picture on what is being studied is brought out. In fact, the research questions normally tally with the research objectives. Before the actual study, it is recommended to state research question or series of questions. The questions should be answered after the study has been conducted. The answer to the research questions should also prove the hypothesis. Hypothesis should be stated clearly indicating both alternative and null hypotheses
Literature review is the second chapter of the study. Besides, literature review describes any previous research conducted on the area of the study or related topics. In addition, the literature review should be from up to date articles, journals and previous thesis. Moreover, the literature review should provide a large picture on what is to be studied. Further, subtopics on the literature review should represent each word in the research title as well as theoretical model that is intended to be used in the research. The procedures set in the literature review should be followed to enable the study be accepted as an academic work.
Methodology is the third chapter of the thesis. Methodology normally describes the kind of research to be conducted in order to complete the project. In most cases, the types of methods in research include library examination, internet research, interviews, observations and survey. The methods are grouped together as either qualitative or quantitative research methodologies. Essentially, in the methodology, detailed explanations on how the research will be conducted are provided.
In addition, the kinds of sources to be consulted as well as methods used to extract and process the information is to be described in detail. In addition, methodology should state the theoretical framework that will be applied in the study. In other words, the methodology should describe theories that will be used to support the study. In most academic studies, theories and models are used to support the research. Essentially, methodology should contain the sub-topics including research theoretical framework, research design, sample and sampling procedures, area of the study, instrumentation, data collection and data analysis.
The study design
The research design will flow from the paradigm. In other words, the design will indicate whether the research is quantitative or qualitative. Moreover, the design will indicate whether the study is explanatory, exploratory or descriptive. In fact, the researcher explains why the chosen type of study is being used and what is planned to be explored, described or explained. Essentially, within the research design, the researcher will inform the reader about the study type to be used. For example, content analysis, programme evaluation, ethnography or interviews and why the design best suits the study.
Data collection and analysis
In data collection and analysis, explanations on how data will be collected and techniques to be used in collecting the data is necessary. Moreover, explanations on what techniques or programmes will be used to analyse and discuss the results of the study are provided.
Results and discussion
In this section, the findings of the study are presented and detailed explanations are provided. In other words, the analysed data are presented in various forms particularly in statistical data presentation formats and interpretations are provided.
The conclusions are drawn from the findings and discussions and state clearly whether the research questions have been answered. Besides, the conclusion confirms the study hypothesis. From the analysed data, findings and discussion, the study can conclude whether the study hypothesis is true or falls.
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