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There is no doubt that the UAE’s suffers from an acute demographic imbalance given the evidence that statistics indicates that the locals have been outnumbered by foreigners. Statistics indicates that foreigners make up over 90% of the population, a trend projected to keep going up by time1. Consequently, this has raised several questions, such as security, culture, and identity globalization. This paper focuses on analyzing the implications of the United Arabs Emirates’ demographic imbalance on national security and national identity2.
It has been argued that nationals suffer identity inferiority due to the imbalance. In addition, it has been acknowledged that foreigners play a leading role in developing the economy, providing workforce, and expertise, which are instrumental in the facilitation of region’s phenomenal infrastructural growth3. Nevertheless, an extreme dependency on foreign labor and migrant workers has resulted into a situation where the local minorities find themselves faced with criminal trends from a foreign lower class.
Some of the threats to the state’s security today were nearly non-existent before the UAE, the oil rich nation as it is today. It is evident that there is existence of crime gangs that perpetuate murders and illegal white and blue collar deals every year. It is the richest in the Arab world because of the presence of natural resources, which is characterized by economic diversification projects and strategic approaches as demonstrated in the appendices. Typified by many natural resources, many people prefer to live in the UAE than other GCC countries.
Moreover, the country is becoming a hub for drug smugglers and various imported criminal activities that jeopardize the nation’s security. Notably, the big population of foreign workers implies that they have considerable power in numbers. This results in an increase in insecurity. For instance, in 2006, there was a strike that had been organized by foreign taxi drivers, which turned into violent for the reason that they did not wish to pay penalties for traffic offenses4.
Foreign constructors also staged violent demonstrations that caused a lot of destruction. The fact that they do not have loyalty to the host country makes the situation dangerous. Such actions have social and economic implications because the UAE is forced to conform to the laws and regulations of other countries. It is imperative to note that some of the immigrant workers forced the UAE government to provide them with conditions similar to those of their home country even when they are not recognized by local laws.
Many researchers have argued that the best practical solution for government would be capitulating to the demands of foreign workers since it does not wish to lose its main source of labor. Despite the damages that are caused by the westerners, the government has tried other initiatives, such as making laws that allow them to exercise their freedoms, such as wearing bikinis on public beaches5.
Although this has been successful in attracting more visitors, it has tended to fuel tension between the locals and “favored” foreigners. It is critical to indicate that cultural integration has not been an easy task since many western and the UAE customs do not rhyme. In fact, what is taken for granted in Europe may earn one a prison sentence in the UAE6. For example, many foreigners have been frequently arrested for driving while drunk, indecent exposure, and public display of affections.
Thus, the labor obligations above combined with the cultural contradiction potentially create a rivalry or even enmity between the locals and foreigners with the former feeling that their laws and culture are being disrespected7. Therefore, it is important to understand that as long visitors outnumber the locals, they will feel unsecured and threatened. Characterized by incidences of guest related crime, the UAE may be turning into a hotbed of internal and, perhaps later, external conflicts.
Demographic imbalance is the biggest threat that is facing UAE. This has resulted from the inclusion of foreigners into the country, who enjoy relatively a large number in the country. It is clear from population analysts that the demographic imbalance has been caused by the importation of labor from other countries.The analysts have predicted that the dependence on foreign labor could continue as far as the UAE does not change the existing policies.
However, the analysts have shown that the population disparity has continued to grow greatly, while the government is not taking any action to deal with increasing rates of immigrations. In fact, population distributions, strength in numbers have been associated with society structure, and influence the direction of transformation of the UAE. Notably, the number of people, its distribution, and age composition are some of the important aspects that cause social changes.
Studies indicate that the imbalance was caused by the small size of the population, and unavailability of the skilled workforce. In, addition, oil became a new source of energy that made the state richer than before8.This made the government embark on its infrastructural projects in many areas, such as roads and transportation, education, and healthcare.
The presence of instability in the UAE due to wars with the neighboring nations worsened the situation of the already existing identity problems. A study to investigate the effects of internal instability found that UAE citizens perceived the presence of outsiders as a threat to their cultural identity. The condition was worsened by the rising unemployment among the young, the growth of highly complex privatized sector, and the Arab Spring, that is destabilizing the gulf region.
It is critical to underscore that the UAE nationals have disclosed that UAE’s demographic imbalance was among the leading nations that are anticipated to encounter present and future problems with regard to issues of healthcare, trade and industry, and safety. It is worth noting that the policy of economic development and population is a paradox9. This is due to the fact that before the discovery of oil, the UAE citizens depended on local industries. However, the reliance on these industries changed after the outbreak of the Second World War, the great depression, and the civil war. This created a change in many sectors of the economy.
There are other resources that the UAE is utilizing in order to minimize the threats from foreigners. The UAE has adopted new measures to expand its wealth. It is focusing on agriculture where agricultural policy-makers are aiming at planning development projects. This is because most people depend on agriculture for consumption and many industries use agricultural products as raw materials. Recent studies indicate that the agricultural industry produces over ten million tonnes every twelve months. This is achieved through the support of government. It is estimated that the UAE is 30% self-sufficient with regard to agriculture.
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The other 70% should be concentrated on to make the UAE’s population independent in relation to food production. Afforestation has become a valuable activity that has provided the UAE with another resource to reduce the threats10. Planting of native and exotic trees has transformed many parts. Another key resource is water. Water is life as stated by many scholars. Preserving water sources implies diversifying the UAE’s economy. Policy-makers should focus on preserving water and analyze physical, economic and social impacts of water on the UAE’s economy.
The 2000 statistics indicates that almost 19,000 persons work as fishermen. 73% are foreigners, while 27% are nationals. 100% of the fishes are domestically consumed11. Arguably, in the future the UAE should develop many resources to improve the management of threats aforementioned. The land should be reclaimed to support agriculture, which is vital in supporting many industries in the UAE. Land can be utilized in many ways. For example, it could be used for agriculture, mining, as has been the case after the discovery of oil, and for settlement of its population. Another vital resource that should be developed is the people.
From the recent studies, the UAEs population is smaller compared with that of foreigners. This has posed a challenge to the security of the nation. Therefore, the situation can be changed if the government adopts measures to increase its population. As a result, many people would be crucial in outnumbering the foreigners. Water is another resource that the UAE should continue to preserve. It is critical to state that most industries depend on water. For instance, hydroelectric power is generated from water, which is crucial in many industries. The UAE should aim at tapping a lot of water since some areas experience high rainfalls. If these resources would be effectively developed, then it would be easier to reduce threats in the state.
It is important to note that the UAE is typified by both internal and external threats due to demographic imbalance. Internal threats have interfered with the running of many activities in the country. The legalizing of property owned by the UAE government for foreigners became an internal threat to the native population. Although the government’s objective was to instill confidence to investors, its citizens felt threatened.
The UAE encountered difficulties in attracting outsiders. It could only attract speculators and war refugees. Water challenge has developed because the large area that is encroached by desert, for example, some areas do not receive adequate rainfall, making it hard to avoid water shortages. For instance, it is evident that the Northern Emirates experience more challenges with regard to water and electricity. This has been the case due to the fact that the less available water is used in luxuries, such as European grass lawns.
In addition, duplicity in diversification has been experienced in the UAE, particularly in aviation and finance sectors. Areas with duplicities, such as Abu Dhabi and Dubai, have rendered the UAE ineffective and inefficient. The population disparity has threatened the Abu Dhabi Economic Vision 2030. Despite the fact that the UAE has afforded the strategic investments and recruited the required human labor, it has been a challenge to incorporate the indigenous human labor for the vision to be effective and sustainable.
Moreover, according to Kasim, it has threatened Adec Mudabala, which aims at implementing the key objectives of the Economic vision 2030. Thus, demographic imbalance has interfered with the implementation of the Economic Vision 2030. In addition, there is wealth disparity between the foreigners and the nationals. It is clear that wealth is unevenly distributed in the federation, with little transparency in its budgets.
Analysts indicated that 29% of the UAE’s oil income between 1990 and 1994 was not included in the national budgets. External threats are characterized by border disputes with the neighboring countries, such as Iran, Oman, and Qatar12. Weaning itself from imported labor has been a major problem with security, despite the fact that nationals have gained the relevant skills needed in current positions held by foreign experts.
It is worth noting that the UAE’s condition is critical in relation to the challenges it is facing compared with other members. Almost every sector is typified with a number of challenges. Some of them have been attributed to the demographic inequality in the region, while others are attributed to other causes13. In fact, the majority of them have their roots in the immigrant labor. The challenges have economic, social, and political dimensions. In social aspects, sectors such as health, overpopulation and education have encountered many challenges, with natives suffering most. In the education sector, the police report that was released in the media revealed that some of the evils that are in the nation resulted from foreigners.
The quality of education is not in line with the goals of Unesco, i.e., Education For All Movements by 2015. According to the Unesco’s special program specialists, the UAE students obtained average results from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). The report indicated that the country’s enrolment was higher in both primary and high schools compared with other GCC members. In addition, its system was good, but the quality of education offered was poor. It was in the position 44th and 46th respectively out of 65 countries that participated in 201214.
The rapid population increase has been a challenge. This resulted from the high influx of immigrant labor that outnumbered the inhabitants of the UAE. As a result, many social evils, such as stealing, prostitution and corruption became rampant, something that was not there before the coming of the immigrant labor. The high population made life unaffordable for the lower class people, especially those who are not educated.
Furthermore, cultural differences between the natives and foreigners have posed a challenge to the growth of the nation’s economy. After the coming of the foreign labor, their culture differed from that of natives. For instance, the mode of dressing was different with regard to the two groups in the UAE. Relating with each other differed greatly. Another social challenge that is faced by the UAE is related to private healthcare. Private healthcare centers are characterized by congested facilities and high costs of treatments15.
With regard to economic challenges, the UAE has experienced demographic imbalance in areas employment. Many foreigners work in industries that require expertise, leaving the UAE citizens jobless. The foreigners own large estates, while the natives occupy poorly developed areas in the country. As a result, the crime rate has increased, threatening the country’s security.
Emiratization has been a challenge, whereby finding employment for the UAEs citizens in the private sector is a problem. If the nationals would be given jobs in the private sector, it would result in inefficiency in private sector businesses. This is because private sectors perceive it as a method of taxation. The large part of land that is encroached by desert makes the country to depend on other activities.
This land could be utilized for agriculture, but it has been left bare. However, this challenge can be overcome if the UAE government reclaims the used land, and introduce irrigation schemes using water from dams. Land policies have made its citizens to live as squatters, yet they belong to that country. It has been unable to reduce usage of petrol, water, and electricity that are misused for the reason that the government is subsidizing them.
The nation has experienced various political problems. For example, border disputes as discussed among the UAE, Iran, and Qatar. This has increased tension among citizens of the three states, leading to insecurity in the region. The tension affects economic sector because people do not concentrate on economic activities, but keep on migrating to peaceful areas16. For example, the effects of western attack on Iran made the government look for ways of reducing the negative effects of the aggression toward its territory. Its effects were loss of confidence by the investors and decrease in the number of tourists.
However, according to Vision 2021 news, the UAE government through its cabinet introduced a national charter that focused on transforming the UAE. The charter anticipated that the nation would be one of the best states in the world by 202117. It encouraged creativity and innovation in countering the challenges the nation was facing. According to the charter, nationals were expected to be ambitious and responsible for them to face the future with confidence, unity, and have a common goal of protecting the Emirates18. In addition, it would advocate for stable development to make the UAE a powerful nation, and concentrate on developing science-based economy, which would be varied and flexible. Moreover, it aimed at ensuring that nationals thrive with regard to good health, quality education, and other government services.
To achieve the objectives of vision 2021, the government initiated the 2011-2013 strategy, which focused on ensuring that government work would be conducted in line with the set goals and principles. According to its principles, citizens would be prioritized, and accountability and innovation would be encouraged. To achieve this, the functions of federal entities would be devised employing effective regulations and integrated policies. The strategy would promote harmonization and teamwork among federal bodies and local authorities. The 2010-2013 strategy concentrated on offering high-quality, consumer-centered and incorporated government services.
It is anticipated that demographic disparity could remain the same, or increase. This is because of the expo 2020 that is expected to take place in Dubai. Expo 2020 would promote cost-effective, artistic and societal transformations, and generate a vital legacy for the host country. Thus, the holding of expo 2020 in Dubai means that more infrastructures would be needed. This implies that more expertise would be necessary, and more foreigners would come to provide labor. Analysts argue that the expo 2020 would boost various sectors.
Tourism sector would be boosted more because more visitors would come. It is anticipated that the government would gain $21million19. Real estates would be advertised leading to the influx and settlement of foreigners in the UAE. The prices of commodities are expected to rise because of the high number of participants in the expo 2020. Despite the fact that there is a demographic imbalance in the region characterized by disparities in employment, it is predicted that 277,000 job opportunities would be created. This would be a solution to some of the social evils, such as stealing and prostitution for the reason that nationals who are the most affected in relation to unemployment. However, the influx of outsiders would continue causing demographic imbalance as was the case after the discovery of oil. This would result in moral disintegration and a threat to national security.
Compared with other countries, UAE is the third largest in the Arab world in terms of economic growth and the second largest compared with other GCC countries. The factors behind its success are unity, social openness, tolerance, coexistence, and prior preparation for safety20. It is easier for many nationals to live in the UAE. This is because it gives a lot freedom to visitors, including freedom of worship and movement. In addition, it is the most tolerable nation among the GCC member states.
The UAE has a good system of education with high enrolments in primary and secondary school, but the quality of education is poor. Ansari and Diane suggest that it has also adopted a sense of balance of foreign policy that would be based on consultation with regard to international principles and dedication to the United Nations charter compared to other member countries of the GCC21. This is evident in the manner in which the UAE relates to other nations of the world.
It is important to note that population change is only determined by death, birth, and migration. Thus, measures of intervention are limited by those factors. It is important to look at strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the UAE in order to come up with strategic approaches. The short-term strategies would comprise reducing the risks that affect the UAE nationals, for example, ensuring that their living standards are good, and managing the rates of migration. In addition, it is advisable to campaign for birth acceleration. The UAE can also use part-time and youth employment to reduce the rate of labor importation.
The part-time labors would work in temporary capacities, reducing the need for adding foreign workers in the country. It is correct to state that the UAEs immigration rules are loose characterized by legal and illegal arbitrage, such as labor sponsorship system that hinders mobility and improvement in the market. Security of the nationals should be prioritized. However, removing the sponsorship system would be a challenge since it can only be achieved through an amendment. Sponsorship system keeps foreign labor in jobs they do not want to do, or in jobs they are unproductive, while there is availability of the same expertise in the country. Another strategic approach that would be effective would be training of professionals, creation of workforce skills and the reduction in over-reliance on means of production that require huge labor.
This would be possible through the application of modern technology to replace unskilled human labor and the increase in wages in private sectors. This would be beneficial and economical to jobless nationals. Retaining of the skilled labor would be another approach. This entails attracting and retaining the creative class that is skilled, and has the potential to offer mobile services. This would be possible through provision of incentives to the workforce. The idea of equating growth with prosperity without considering its impacts on national population should change. Population increase should not be seen as a result of economic success.
Therefore, it is crucial to explore administrative costs and losses resulting from production and find their root causes. It is also important for the UAE government to build a more positive national identity, which would help citizens to overcome any conflict that would arise from all dimensions, such as historical, religious, and ethnicity22. A strong culture that supports moral values, and do not accommodate foreign cultures would be important in discouraging the immigration of labor. As earlier discussed, change in demographic imbalance is mainly influenced by birth, death, and migration. Thus, the measures discussed above would only reduce it, if they would be adopted.
The UAE strategic vision 2030 focuses on utilizing the available opportunities to make the UAE a leading nation among the GCC. News released by the Inter Press Agency News, highlighted that Vision 2030 concentrates on ensuring sustainability in economic development in both the public and private sector23. The obtainable solutions relate with the UAE’s strategic vision 2030 because the strategic approach concentration is on both sustainable developments and reducing population imbalance. Both are comparable in that, they aim at conceptualizing, consolidating, simplifying, and updating planning for achievement of sustainable development. In its long-term strategies, vision 2030, gives the solutions that are provided in this paper, such as security, safety, emergency preparedness, and ecological protection.
It would be critical to underscore the impacts of demographic disparity to both the national security and the UAE nationals. Many studies have shown that the disparity has both positive and negative effects. On the positive side, it is important to acknowledge the role played by foreign workers in economic growth and the development in various sectors in the UAE. In fact, Ahmad and Ali contend that foregners offered cheap labor, which was more economical and profitable24.
The coming of foreign workforce made the UAE cosmopolitan, giving it an advantage to be ahead of other nations in the region. Nonetheless, they brought the production capability, knowledge, and expertise, which resulted in rapid economic growth. This is evident in the short period that was used by the UAE to realize considerable developments using many foreign labors. Thus, they played central roles in the improvement of the country and its economy.
Arab labors are considered as the initiators of education. Ahmad and Ali in a study conducted to examine informal education, acknowledged that education system of the UAE originated from Arabs. Foreigners had different cultures from the UAE nationals. When they came to the country, they enriched the nationals’ culture. In addition, the nationals adopted foreign language that enabled them to communicate easily with the outsiders, leading to cultural exchange. The UAE was exposed to the outside world. This was facilitated by its tolerance that attracted many citizens from all over the world.
Despite the positive effects of demographic disparity on the national security, it is also typified by negative impacts. Concerning the behaviors, youths’ moral values have decayed due to foreigners’ influence. For example, the mode of dressing, the manner of perceiving things, and their religion changed. They began copying westerners of doing things25. This resulted in loss of cultural contact by the UAE nationals. This is evident in the decline in the use of Arabic language in all sectors, including schools and workplaces.
As a result, citizens encountered difficulties in reading and interpreting Quran, leading to abandonment of their religion. Furthermore, it led to unemployment among the Emirates. This was facilitated by importation of skilled labor, leaving them unemployed. Joblessness made young people abuse drugs. Consequently, the crime rate and psychological instability increased. For example, drug trafficking, fraud, and prostitution became rampant. Child helpers, who were employed to care for the children, did not treat the children as was expected. According toHusam-Aldin Al- and Rekha, foreigners were offered employment opportunities, leaving the nationals jobless26.
The two researcher ague that demographic imbalance led to water and food insecurity. This is for the reason that it created pressure on the scarce resources and stress on the environment. Many people fell sick because there was spread of diseases. This was due to an unhealthy environment. Social aspect of life became expensive, for, example, education and healthcare services. Nationals realized the importance of education, increasing its demand. The increased number of unskilled workers contributed to a reduction in productivity levels of the UAE.
Before the paper focus on recommending what should be adopted in order to reduce demographic imbalance and its effects on the UAE nationals and national security, it is vital to mention that the situation was caused by two factors, i.e., presence of oil and the UAE’s small population. Therefore, recommendations would concentrate on policies that would impact the two factors.
First, the government should embark on reforming labor-market laws. It is worth noting that the UAE migration laws are loose, and everyone can easily adhere to them. In addition, there are no strict measures for those who break them. The market laws should include phasing out sponsorship policy, and choosing private sectors to manage visas. This would improve statistical tracking of non-nationals, reducing illegal entry into the state. Consequently, only skilled labor would migrate into the UAE as compared with earlier situations, where everybody migrated into the country. The private sector would help in ensuring that only qualified child helpers would be employed.
Second, it is important to introduce specialized tools for young people to deal with the country’s heritage. This could only be achieved through supporting the role of family in preserving the Emirate’s heritage. Modern technology should be utilized in both promotions of heritage and enforcing decent rules to new visitors to protect Muslims in the region, and their Islamic culture. In addition, curriculum should be developed in such a way that national heritage and identity are incorporated. This would be important for future generations.
Third, the government should concentrate on investing in national human capital. During the research for this paper, it was realized that the education system of the UAE does not match with the modern economy. The focus should be given to industrial and vocational training to prepare citizens adequately to be reliable with regard to getting employment. Moreover, higher education and research institutions should concentrate on effective and innovative to equip students with knowledge that would be critical in promoting academic freedom.
Academic freedom would result in the preservation of cultural heritage. Fourth, there is a need for building societal changes and the labor market with regard to women’s employment. It is clear that the UAE labor laws do not support employed and/or studying mothers. The UAE women are not given maternity leave options. To fight demographic imbalance, fertility rates need to be increased. It is important to realize that women are educated in the country, and have more influence on labor force than men.
Nevertheless, pro-natalist policies would only start if the burden on women is reduced in relation to the workplace and those that would be studying. Therefore, the UAE administration should introduce gender-aware regulation reforms. Maternity leaves, developments of nurseries, day cares, housing, and improved prenatal healthcare should be prioritized to reduce the demographic imbalance. The retirement age of the nationals should be increased because early retirement depletes skilled labor, creating the need for imported labor, especially at the senior levels of the firms. Fifth, foreigners should be given a stake in society.
For example, a formal path to the acquisition of citizenship to non-nationals should be adopted, and should be minimal, at most 3%-5% of the current demography. Giving citizenship to skilled doctors, professionals, and business investors who have employed a relatively high number of nationals would be advisable. Sixth, national outlook need to be changed. It is anticipated that the number of unemployed UAE citizens would continue to increase each day. It is crucial for market laws to be geared toward specialization and the creation of labors that do not heavily rely on human labor as a means of production and service.
Although, the UAE has made progress in this area, there is a room for improvement. Nonetheless, the UAE administration should continue to diversify its economy and encourage citizen to invest in them. In particular, it should focus on education for the reason that it would bring changes in almost every sector. Healthcare sector should be improved to increase fertility rates. For example, both free pre-natal, post-natal services, and maternity-leave with subsidiaries should be provided to women.
In conclusion, the demographic imbalance is not only a challenge in the UAE, but also in the GCC member countries. The imbalance is brought about by the presence of rich natural resource and small population of the state. It is important to underscore that the non-nationals migrated to the UAE to offer skilled labor, which was in demand, especially after the discovery of oil. This situation is anticipated to remain the same, or even become worse.
This would be the case because of the expo 2020 that is expected to be held in Dubai. Large numbers of foreigners are expected to participate in the expo 2020. Some foreigners have begun migrating to engage in construction works that have already begun. Despite the fact that the UAE has gained from the high influx of foreigners, the imbalance has more disadvantages than advantages. The presence of foreigners has impacted negatively on national security and the UAE population. For instance, childcare providers did not bring up children in the expected ways.
The imbalance has been characterized by moral decay, lack of cultural identity, unemployment, and decrease in living standards of the nationals. Crime rates and theft cases have increased due to unemployment of the UAE citizens. The imbalance instills fear among the UAE citizens. However, the condition of the UAE can be changed, or improved. Although birth, death, and migration are the main factors behind it, governments can develop measures to reduce the imbalance. Labor market reforms, change of societal perception, encouraging professionalism, among other steps would yield positive results to a demographic imbalance. Arguably, imported labor may not be more productive than the nationals. Therefore, the education system should be tailored toward producing self-reliant citizens who are knowledgeable and skilled. This would result in reduction of imported labor, easing the demographic imbalance.
|Table 1. Demographic Imbalances & National Resource Wealth|
|Country||2010 Population (mn)||Workforce||National Resource Wealtha|
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- Ingo Forstenlechner and Emilie Jane Rutledge. “The GCC’s “Demographic Imbalance”: Perceptions, Realities and Policy Options.” Middle East Policy 18, no. 4 (2011): 30.
- Jasim Al-Ali, “Emiratisation: drawing UAE nationals into their surging economy.” International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 28, no. 9/10 (2008): 370.
- Ingo Forstenlechner, Emilie Rutledge, and Rashed Salem Alnuaimi. “The UAE, the “Arab Spring” and Different Types of Dissent.” Middle East Policy 19, no. 4 (2012): 60
- Mohammed Eman Arif Gaad and Fentey Scott. “Systems analysis of the UAE education system.” International Journal of Educational Management 20, no. 4 (2006): 300.
- Peter Turnbull and Victoria Wass. “Defending dockWorkers–Globalization and labor relations in the world’s ports.” Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society 46, no. 3(2007): 590.
- Katarzyna Budnik, “Temporary migration in theories of international mobility of labour.” Bank i Kredyt 6, no. 1 (2011): 20.
- Jeffrey Szuchman, “Archaeology, Identity, and Demographic Imbalance in the United Arab Emirates.” Heritage & Society 5, no. 1 (2012): 45.
- Andrew Mountford and Hillel Rapoport. “The brain drain and the world distribution of income.” Journal of Development Economics 95, no. 1 (2011): 17.
- Valerie Goby and Catherine Nickerson. “Language, religion, and culture in the context of international retail: A study of the multicultural commercial hub of Dubai.” Australian Journal of Communication 40, no. 3 (2013): 14.
- Andrew Mountford and Hillel Rapoport. “The brain drain and the world distribution of income.” Journal of Development Economics 95, no. 1 (2011): 6
- Adrienne Isakovic and Mary Forseth Whitman. “Self-initiated expatriate adjustment in the United Arab Emirates: a study of academics.” Journal of Global Mobility: The Home of Expatriate Management Research 1, no. 2 (2013): 171.
- Kasim Randeree, “Strategy, policy and practice in the nationalisation of human capital:‘project emiratisation’.” Research and Practice in Human Resource Management 17, no. 1 (2009): 72.
- Zahoor Haq, Sherin Sherif, and Mohamed Gheblawi. “Impact of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of households on demand for Food Away from Home in the United Arab Emirates.” International Journal of Hospitality Management 42 (2014): 98
- United Arabs Emirates, “The United Arab Emirates: leading competitiveness globally”, Vision 2021 news, 2013, Web.
- Ansari Batoul Modarress and Diane Lockwood. “Emiratisation: from policy implementation.” International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management 13, no. 2 (2013): 199.
- Abdulkhaleq Abdullah, “UAE’s demographic imbalance,” Gulf news, 2007, Web.
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- Ansari Batoul Modarress and Diane Lockwood. “Emiratisation: from policy implementation.” International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management 13, no. 2 (2013): 199.
- Jeffrey Szuchman, “Archaeology, Identity, and Demographic Imbalance in the United Arab Emirates. “Heritage & Society 5, no. 1 (2012): 45.
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