In this article, the authors discussed the theory of self-directed search (SDS) elaborated by Holland. It proposed a scale of various types of personality conformity to different vocational environments (Gottfredson & Holland, 1975). In other words, this theory implies assessing the compatibility of an individual with a certain vocational setting. The degree of compatibility of the personality type with the professional environment is inversely proportional to the distance between the corresponding vertices.
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Considering the vocational orientation of the inclinations and abilities of the participants, the authors used classical vocational guidance methods with a high level of validity. With the help of the selected tool, general characteristics of professional orientation, the personal inclination to different types of activities, and the professional orientation of a person to determine the level of readiness for adequate professional choice were studied. In the course of the research, the formation of gender socialization was analyzed.
It was found that a significant dependence of a stereotype representation about certain personality traits exists in the participants. For the analysis, the following series of factors were highlighted: the assessment of the overall attractiveness of daydreaming elements, the strength of personality, social status, modernity, femininity (traditionally “female” qualities), and masculinity (traditionally “male” qualities).
The authors were more interested in gender stereotypes regarding men’s and women’s vocational choices. The coefficient of conjugacy revealed a significant level of dependence between stereotypes in personal gender characteristics and the formation of gender identity. Based on the findings in men and women, a set of traditional gender behavior characteristics, opportunities, and expectations was generated. Namely, it was detected that both examined genders have a stereotyped set of specific personality traits related to gender. The results reflect the gender stereotypes of young men and women in the vocational sphere.
The article’s findings prove that women are more prone to select social occupations such as Arts colleges and other social institutions. At the same time, the authors suggest that this is caused by the intention of women to teaching processes, which make them consider social activities. However, the above prediction cannot be considered perfect since the marginal distribution may be varied. In their turn, male participants of the study may be characterized by selecting investigative and artistic daydreaming codes. This means that the cultural bias exists in the prediction of male and female vocational preferences, while the validity of this study can be traced in an attempt to reduce this bias.
Gottfredson, G. D., & Holland, J. L. (1975). Vocational choices of men and women: A comparison of predictors from the self-directed search. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 22(1), 28-34. Web.