The purpose of the program is to introduce students to the water cycle systems, stages, and importance.
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Program length: 2 weeks
Maximum Student number: 20
Goals and Objectives
The students will:
- Define and understand the water cycle. The students should understand that the cycle is a continuous phenomenon and name places where water is found on the surface of the earth.
- State reasons for water conservation. The students should mention water usage at home to understand its importance.
- Understand the role of the water cycle within the universe system. The student should be able to define and explain the water cycle stages.
Describe ways of water conservation
This module is intended for grade-5
The water cycle is a cyclic pattern of water from the sea to the atmosphere to the land and back to the sea. The heat from the sun strikes the earth causing evaporation of the surface water. This water rises in the form of vapor to the cooler atmosphere where it condenses to a liquid form that falls back to the earth’s surface in the form of rain or snow if solidifies.
The students will demonstrate the water cycle stages that are; evaporation, condensation, precipitation, water runoff, and soil moisture through activities.
The teacher can come up with a repetitive song made up of the basic terms in the water cycle such as condensation, evaporation, and precipitation to entice the students so that they can remember the terms. The teacher should then engage the students in a discussion about their to understand their basic knowledge about the topic. Some of the questions to ask include:
- What is rain?
- What are clouds?
- What is the source of the ground?
After the discussion the explain to the students how every next step of learning would enable them to understand the topic.
Setting up activities
The teacher should involve at least three students in the activity preparation to enable them to feel involved as these will promote their attention to learn. If the practical materials are enough, students are divided into working groups according to the number of the activity stations and allowed to rotate from one station to the next. This approach will ensure that all the students are in close contact with the materials for a better understanding of the activity. Similarly, the teacher can handle the students collectively if the available materials are limited to group work.
Ask the students to name some of the areas on earth that water can be found. Ask them to help draw them (clouds, groundwater, soil, lakes, animals, oceans, plants, rivers, and glaciers). Define and explain to the student the water cycle. Before introducing the water cycle processes, here are some of the questions to ask students.
How does dew water get to the sky?
How does rainwater get in a tree?
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Allow them to draw using arrows as they provide these answers.
Materials for three students per groups
- Small dishes or Petri dishes
- Source of light
- Cover for the dishes
Before the activity starts ask the students these questions
Where does the water on wet clothes go when dried?
Predict what will happen if we leave the water of the Petri dishes overnight?
What will happen if the dishes are covered and left overnight?
After the activity, provide the students with sheets of paper to answer the following questions as a group.
Which dish lost more water?
Where did the missing water go?
How did the water escape?
The teacher should explain to the students the process of that water loss in-depth, allow the groups to discuss and provide examples of evaporation. Divide the students into two, provide two dishes of water each with tablespoons. Place one dish on a light source and another under the shade, ask each student to observe each dish, and record observation.
Materials for three students per group
- A clean and transparent two-liter bottle for every student
- A thermometer for each bottle
Questions to discuss
Here are questions to ask before the activity begins
What warms the air and what happens when it warms up?
What cools air and what happens when it cools down?
What are clouds and what are they made up of?
What are the three necessary things that form clouds?
What is fog?
After the activity allows the students to discuss among their groups the previously asked questions and their understanding of air pressure, air temperature, condensation, and cloud formation.
This session is divided into two parts.
Session 1 change in temperate in s closed bottle.
Set a group of three and provide each with;
A clear plastic bottle and cap
A temperature strip
A tape strip
A box of matches
Paper for data recording
Step: the bottle is topped with a temperate strip for reading and close4ly covered. Wet the inner surface of the bottle by swirling the water content, place the bottle on its side for easy reading of temperature. Read and record the air temperature inside the bottle. Squeeze the bottle using two hands and read the temperate after a minute while squeezing. Stop squeezing and read the temperature after a minute.
Ask the student to discuss the following questions
What happened to the air temperate when the bottle is squeezed?
What happens to the air temperature when the squeezing was stopped.
Session 2. Making clouds
Pour a few drops of water into a bottle and cover tightly. Wet most of the bottle by swirling the water inside. Put the bottle on the side and apply pressure on it to half its size. Put a smoldering match stick in the bottle, remove the pressure, and cover it squeeze the bottle tightly for a minute until it opens up. Study what happens, You would see the clouds.
The experiment is to show how water molecules condense to form clouds. Squeezing the bottle increases the air pressure that consequently increases the temperature, the increase in air temperature condensed the water in the water into vapor, when the bottle opened up the pressure and temperature lowered leading to the formation of clouds (Ralph, 2008).
- Source of heat
- A pot
- A container with handler
- Ice cubes
- Another container or a pie pan
Questions of discussions
What is rain/ how is rain formed? How is snow formed? What is hail?
Tell the students to observe these questions during the activity: what happens at the bottom of the bowl? What happens to the pie pin? How does water get into the bowl? Are the water drops formed on the bowl sides the same? Which drops look like rain and which like clouds? How are the large drops form?
Gather students around the activity to see what happens to the pot with ice in it and moisture dripping into the pie pan. Heat the water in the pot until it starts to boil. fill the container with the handler with ice. Hold the bowl of ice above the steam as the water boils. Collect the water dropping from the bottom of the bowl using into the pin. Ensure that all the students understand what happens to the pot surface with ice (Outdoor learning center 2006).
Evaporation is the process where water changes from liquid to gas. The heat from the sun or light source changes the liquid water into vapor which is the gaseous state of water. Water evaporates from all the nine places that it is found in the air.
Where does water on the surface of the ground go?
1 paper and pen
2 questions for discussion: how many precipitation kids do you know? How is the water stored on earth?
3 list places water goes after precipitation, draw the movement of water after it hits the ground, and has the class discuss the generated answers.
Infiltration is the movement of water through the soil particles into the groundwater.
Soil Moisture and Water Runoff
- A funnel
- Cone folded filter paper for every soil type
- Soil varieties (half cup of 100 ml)
- Graduated cylinder
- A jar full of water
- A container for collecting the dropping water
Questions of discussion before the activity: what’s the source of groundwater? How are streams and rivers formed? Do all types of water hold the same amount of water?
Question of discussion after the activity, with a partner answer these questions: when do you know that the soil is saturated and what happens to the water? List areas where the water goes after it gets into the stream
Procedure: put the filters in the funnel and fill with soil, pour water slowly after every thirty seconds until water drops into the collecting container. Experiment repeatedly using different new materials.
Materials for the terrarium activity
- Potting soil
- Pouring water container
- Plastic container
Ask these questions Before the activity: how does the water cycle stages fit and what happens without one step?
Ask students to describe the types of water cycle they observe after the terrarium is built.
Procedure: help the students build their terrarium and observe the cycle. Provide the students with small plastic with a clear cover. Let the student put soil at the bottom of the container plant seeds and water the soil lightly, cover the terrarium with a tight clear cover to allow sunlight get through.
Explain the water cycle system to the student so that they understand the cyclic system.
Is carried out during discussion throughout the activities. The subject of the final assessment will be; using drawings discuss the water cycle
The standards met by the module
Science library AAAS benchmarks and the AAAS science of all Americans
This constructivist approach motivates the learning process as it is wholly integrated and well structured therefore makes learning active, an interactive social process so that the students are not bored. Dividing students into groups promote collaboration among learners as they can understand and remember these activities in the future and during final exams.
Out door learning center (2006). Water cycle. Web.
Ralph, T. (2008). Water: A Never-Ending Story. New York. Pillsbury.