Theoretical issues can be of primary importance for making certain decisions because theoretical ideas are implemented in practice. Observation of nature and society can clarify the issue of living in a certain period of time and experiences the processes that take place in natural environment, in society, and interact with other individuals.
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As some conclusions can be based on observations, it is necessary to consider the work by Engels and Marx that analyses the relationships between individuals in society in terms of their connections to each other and types of interactions; Freud focuses on the role of an individual in a society in terms of its relations to the civilization, and Darwin emphasizes the relations of individuals in terms of natural environment and other living species that inhabit the same territory.
Examination of Sources
The Communist Manifesto by Engels and Marx
“A specter is haunting Europe — the specter of communism” (Marx and Engels, Preamble). The first statement of the manifesto identifies the relation of people towards the period of time they live in and characterizes the relations between people. As communism is described as specter, people are either unaware or afraid of it.
However, the next passage clarifies the issue and analyzes that people were aware of communism but did not know exactly the peculiarities of regime and its consequences for the world. So, one of the prominent features of this work can be considered an idea of observation enlarged on while writing.
For instance, the author described the ways of production and their adjustment to the needs of contemporary people hence thinking about changes that should be made in every situation when time comes, some time is necessary to see the necessity of changes and take appropriate steps: “The feudal system of industry, in which industrial production was monopolised by closed guilds, now no longer sufficed for the growing wants of the new markets” (Marx and Engels, Chapter 1, para. 7).
Thus, the author analyzes the actions of people and relations between different classes in society by observing the history and inferring from events that happen all the time. Repetition of events is the main concept that can be emphasized from Marx’s observation of society in a long period of time.
Civilization and Its Discontents by Freud
People need those ‘regulations which adjust the mutual relationships of human beings in the family, the state and society” (Freud 59). This is one of the examples that demonstrate how the author used observation of nature and society to infer from things he saw. The work is aimed at analysis and interpretation of the major reasons and preconditions for creation or appearance of civilizations.
Freud noticed that all individuals have something in common and that every period of time can be marked with certain peculiar features that can be tips for creation of civilizations though every change requires a lot of time. Moreover, he analyzed the events that took place in the era such as the World War I where all technological innovations were used and the nature of order: “The benefits of order are incontestable. It enables men to use space and time to the best advantage…” (Freud 70).
Freud tried to explain that time is the only concept that is important because people adjust to certain life situations after experiencing difficulties.
On Natural Selection by Darwin
Chares Darwin contributed greatly to the development of evolutionary theory and clarified some aspects of natural selection: “We behold the face of nature bright with gladness, we often see superabundance of food; we do not see, or we forget, that the birds which are idly singing round us mostly live on insects of seeds…” (Darwin 1).
In this respect, the whole concept of theories was built using the method of observation that enabled the author to see differences and similarities in certain areas of nature and society and analyze the importance of species, selection (that was mostly compared to breeding), and evolution.
The author claims that nature can make more obvious changes in the look of species than do men by breeding because of time needed for greater differences: “…adding up in any given direction mere individual differences, so could Nature, but far more easily, from having incompatibly longer time at her disposal” (Darwin 22).
In other words, Darwin could demonstrate every point and every concept of his theories, suggestions, and hypotheses using society and natural environment as examples because the structure of the natural societies such as prides, shoal, packs, and other groups is very similar to the structure existing in human society. A long period of time was necessary to infer from observing nature and society.
Different researchers used the method of observation to examine the world, its structure, and minor groups and concepts existing in it. Thus, Darwin was not the only to focus on the origin of species but one of the first to implement the analysis of species to human beings.
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Freud analyzed the interactions between people as he saw the war and wanted to explore the reasons and peculiarities o individuals and civilizations. So, every observation needs a long period of time to make logical and adequate conclusions concerning the nature and society and relations between these concepts.
Darwin, Charles. On Natural Selection. New York: Penguin, 2005. Print.
Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and Its Discontents. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, Inc., 2010. Print.
Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels. Manifesto of the Communist Party. Marx/Engels Internet Archive 1987, 2000. Web. <https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-manifesto/ch01.htm>.