Crisis of masculinity and factors that led to masculinity crisis in rural Wolof communities
The rural Wolof community is in a crisis of authority because of several interlinked processes. The conflict and concession do not signal to end soon as men due to their conservative nature want to maintain their dominance.
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Nevertheless, global factors that draw women to engage in commercial activities currently leaves Wolof men powerless, and this might transform the crisis from masculinity to that of femininity. One of the factors that have led to masculinity crisis is lack of benefits derived from Programme Agricole where men infringed upon women’s control of their own-account farms. When the Programme Agricole ended, male financial dominance also ended, leaving a vacuum in the provision of basic commodities in the house (Perry 213).
The fear of moral discourses and patriarchal wrath is another factor that has led to masculinity crises. In this era of neoliberal reform, men have diminishing control over women mobility. Women now attend louma at their own will, where they interact with people against most men’s wish. Men claim that this is against Islamic teaching. Old men, particularly the polygamous one fear that adultery between their wives and young men (Perry 215). This has pressed on men to deride the female petty trade.
Household setup of separable, often competing, interests, rights, and responsibility is another factor that has contributed to the crisis. Money rules Senegal in that economic power minimizes male opposition to women petty trade. The shift from women’s labor as unpaid family workers to a liberal and independent trader has not been taken lightly in this dominant patriarchal society.
Women have contributed much of these by exhibiting purpose and agency in a society where men have failed to provide food for the family as well as land and equipment for cultivation (Perry 220). This is in the quest to uphold family values, where men fear the humiliation and mockery of the society for their failures.
The reality in African culture is clearly demonstrated in the three films reality entails injustices and inequality between men and women in the society. Nevertheless, the films demonstrate how struggle, persistence, and goodwill in women can change their status from the traditional society to the modern society where women are respected and appreciated.
They show the real roles played by African women as mothers, sisters, providers, supporters, educators, and talent nurtures. This is a clear indication that African society is gradually shifting from a male-dominant patriarchal society to accommodate and appreciate the role played by both ganders.
Developmental schema of women’ status in Senegalese society based on the three movies
In the film “Faat Kine”, the main character Faat represent a typical African woman who has straggled in life due to cultural expectation but later succeeded because of her vigor and will. She represents modern women who are financially independent. Her early life demonstrates the traditional African woman, whose role is to please men.
However, her present life reveals how the society has changed and changed the perception toward women and their roles. Her children on the other hand represent the future and show women independence in decision-making (Newman).
The film “Tableau Ferraille” on the other hand indicates how women are the pillars of the society to an extent of making or breaking a man. Although Daam is handsome, eager, ambitious, and westernized, he opts to marry a second wife because his first wife, Gagnesiri was unable to have children.
Ironically, Gagnesiri uphold family values. Upon realizing that her husband married another wife for own selfish end, she leave him and set to another land (Dembrow). This is an indication of societal shift to modernity, as well as how women are able to make independent decisions. Lastly, “Moolaade” demonstrate the struggle in modern African society in budging from the culture of gender stereotyping (Ebert). It shows how strong and focused women can unite and defeat the evil in the patriarchal society.
Dembrow, Michael. “Tableau Ferraille.” 14 February 1999. Web.
Ebert, Roger. “Moolaade.” 01 July 2007. Web.
Newman, Talibah. “A Review of the Film “Faat Kine”.” 24 September 2006. Web.
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Perry, Donna L. “Wolof Women, economic liberalization, and the crisis of masculinity in rural Senegal.” Ethnology (2003): 207-226. Print.