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Workforce Business Data Analysis Report (Assessment)


A summary of the salaries of females and males overall, and separately

The average salary for Victorian workers, regardless of gender, is $62,890. On average, male workers in the Victorian workforce have a salary of $67,370 whereas the average salary for female workers is slightly lower than that of males as it is $58,410. Male workers are highest paid with the highest salary being $106,200 as compared to $101,260 for the highest-paid female workers. Moreover, the female worker’s group has the least paid workers with the lowest salary being $19,030 compared to the least paid male workers ($31,160).

A summary of the proportion of females and males in each age-group

Most of the female workers are middle-aged (98) whereas old female workers are the least (18). Young female workers (34) are almost twice the old female workers. Middle-aged male workers also constitute the largest proportion of male workers (80) whereas young male workers are the least (15) among male workers in Victoria. Old male workers constitute a substantial number (55). It is therefore notable that substantial differences exist in terms of gender composition among the different age groups. In particular, there are more female workers among the young and middle age groups whereas old aged male workers are three times the number of females in the same age group.

Which industry group represented the largest sample proportion?

Regarding workforce distribution among various industries, it is evident that the primary industry has the largest proportion of workers (19%). The second-largest proportion of workers (12%) is absorbed in other industries except for the Accommodation, Hospitality & Food/Beverage Services, Retail Trade and Business, Professional and Commercial Services, each absorbing 11% of the workforce.

In the Primary Industry, which has the largest proportion of the workforce, there are slightly more male workers (30) than female workers (27). This difference is very small.

What proportion of the workforce do females account for overall, as well as in both city and country locations?

The overall Victorian workforce has an equal proportion of the male and female workforce (males 150, females 150). Differences however emerge when the location of the workforce is put into consideration. In this regard, there are more female workers in the country (99) as compared to those working in the city (51). On the contrary, most of the male workers are located in the city (82) as compared to those in the countryside (68).

Females’ salary and other numerical variables

Having more improvement courses translate to higher salaries among female workers. Female workers who have done three improvement courses have a higher salary on average ($88,910) as compared to those who have done one improvement course ($70,730) or those who have not done any improvement course ($49,690). Female workers who have either two children or none earn almost the same salary on average ($56,910 and 56,950 respectively).

However, the average salary for women with one child is lower ($51,420). The salary scale increases as the number of children a woman has increased, with females with five children earning the most ($82,400). Exceeding five children, however, seem to be related to a decrease in salary ($75,340 from $82,400 for females with five children). Single female workers earn slightly higher ($59,160) than their married counterparts ($57,400).

The higher the number of years women have had in an industry does not necessarily translate to a higher salary. For instance, while female workers with 9 years of experience have an average salary of $94,250, the average salary for those with 33 years of experience is $71,400.

Appendix

Table 1: A Summary of Salaries Overall ($’000) in the Victorian Workforce.

Descriptive Statistics
N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Skewness Kurtosis
Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Statistic Std. Error Statistic Std. Error
Salary $’000 300 19.03 106.20 62.8903 16.30464 .165 .141 .209 .281
Valid N (listwise) 300

Table 2: Salaries Overall ($’000) for Males and Females in the Victorian Workforce.

Descriptives
Female or Male coded as a number Statistic Std. Error
Salary $’000 Male Mean 67.3700 1.12957
95% Confidence Interval for Mean Lower Bound 65.1380
Upper Bound 69.6020
5% Trimmed Mean 67.0510
Median 66.8000
Variance 191.389
Std. Deviation 1.38343E1
Minimum 31.16
Maximum 106.20
Range 75.04
Interquartile Range 18.67
Skewness .303 .198
Kurtosis .388 .394
Female Mean 58.4106 1.41815
95% Confidence Interval for Mean Lower Bound 55.6083
Upper Bound 61.2129
5% Trimmed Mean 57.9755
Median 56.2400
Variance 301.673
Std. Deviation 1.73687E1
Minimum 19.03
Maximum 101.26
Range 82.23
Interquartile Range 20.36
Skewness .409 .198
Kurtosis .283 .394

Table 3: A 2×2 Cross Tabulation of the Proportion of Females and Males in each Age-group (Young, Middle Aged and Old).

Female or Male? * Age group coded as a number Crosstabulation
Count
Age group coded as a number Total
Young Middle aged Old
Female or Male? Female 34 98 18 150
Male 15 80 55 150
Total 49 178 73 300

Table 4: A Statistically Significant Chi-Square Statistic for Male and Female Workers in Each Age Group.

Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 27.941a 2 .000
Likelihood Ratio 29.040 2 .000
N of Valid Cases 300
a. 0 cells (.0%) have an expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 24.50.

Table 5: Summaries of the Different Proportions of the Various Industry Groups Represented Victorian Workforce.

The industry supergroup
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Manufacturing, Transport, and Storage 36 12.0 12.0 12.0
Accommodation, Hospitality & Food/ Beverage Services 33 11.0 11.0 23.0
Service Trades, Electricity, Gas, Construction and Wholesale Trade 36 12.0 12.0 35.0
Business, Professional and Commercial Services 33 11.0 11.0 46.0
Retail Trade 33 11.0 11.0 57.0
Government, Education and Community Services 36 12.0 12.0 69.0
Other Services 36 12.0 12.0 81.0
Primary Industry 57 19.0 19.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0

Table: 6: The Proportion of Male and Female Workers in each Industry Group.

Female or Male coded as a number * The industry supergroup Crosstabulation
Count
The industry supergroup Total
Manufacturing, Transport, and Storage Accommodation, Hospitality & Food/ Beverage Services Service Trades, Electricity, Gas, Construction and Wholesale Trade Business, Professional and Commercial Services Retail Trade Government, Education and Community Services Other Services Primary Industry
Female or Male coded as a number Male 18 15 18 15 18 18 18 30 150
Female 18 18 18 18 15 18 18 27 150
Total 36 33 36 33 33 36 36 57 300

Table 7: Chi-Square Statistic showing that the Differences in Gender Composition in Industry Groups are not statistically Significant.

Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square .976a 7 .995
Likelihood Ratio .977 7 .995
N of Valid Cases 300
a. 0 cells (.0%) have an expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 16.50.

Table 8: Proportion of Overall Male and Female Workers in the Victorian Workforce.

Female or Male?
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Female 150 50.0 50.0 50.0
Male 150 50.0 50.0 100.0
Total 300 100.0 100.0

Table 9: Proportion of Male and Female Workers based on whether they are Located in the City or the Countryside.

Female or Male? * Workplace location coded as a number Crosstabulation
Count
Workplace location coded as a number Total
City Country
Female or Male? Female 51 99 150
Male 82 68 150
Total 133 167 300

Table 10: A statistically Significant Chi-Square for male and Female Workforce as Located in the City and the Country.

Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided) Exact Sig. (2-sided) Exact Sig. (1-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 12.980a 1 .000
Continuity Correctionb 12.156 1 .000
Likelihood Ratio 13.080 1 .000
Fisher’s Exact Test .000 .000
N of Valid Casesb 300
a. 0 cells (.0%) have an expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 66.50.
b. Computed only for a 2×2 table
Distribution of salary ($’000) among male workers.
Figure 1: Distribution of salary ($’000) among male workers.
Distribution of salary ($’000) among female workers.
Figure 2: Distribution of salary ($’000) among female workers.
A Graphical Representation of female and male workers in each age group
Figure 3: A Graphical Representation of female and male workers in each age group (Young, Middle Aged and Old).
A Graphical Distribution of Victorian Workforce among Various Industries.
Figure 4: A Graphical Distribution of Victorian Workforce among Various Industries.
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