Apparently, sporadic changes have been observed in the market field in day-to-day live. Such changes have been implemented with the ultimate goal of making markets potential areas for carrying out business activities. Ideally, derivative markets are based on an underlying market. In this light, such market can be of different forms ranging from individual stock market, indices and currency-based market. Furthermore, it is also applied as a gear towards the buying and selling of some types of commodities.
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In essence, derivative markets are categorized into two forms where the investor can decide whether he or she should purchase and sell the product in the form of futures or over the counter. However, the investors’ preference to engage in derivatives depends on their distinct type handled by an individual.
In the case of future market, there are several business places almost all over the world that are involved actively in such types of market as the Chicago mercantile exchange in USA. On the other hand, it also involves the selling and purchasing of future contracts between the two participating partners. This aspect inculcates the form of asset where financial instruments such as the future option are derived. From a business point-of-view, the position produced by these transactions is often equivalent to zero.
Furthermore, there are also the on-counter derivative markets. In these scenarios, large institutions such as investment banks, government bodies, and hedge funds are often seen as the perfect potential business customers by the financiers. This aspect is attributed to the trading activities on the forms of markets involved in the use of derivative credits.
Evaluation and Explanation on how the Clearing House Operates to Protect Future Markets
A clearing house is a fiscal organization that offers clearance and settlement services between the trading firms for financial and commodities’ derivatives, as well as securities’ transactions. In most case, different aspects of financial transactions execute business portfolios such as over-the-counter, security, and future exchanges. In addition, it also stands between two firms with a sole purpose of ensuring that either of them honors its trade settlement obligations. This house helps to reduce risks and safeguard future markets.
Covers on risks
A clearing house decreases the settlement perils by acquiring collateral deposits between the two involved counterparts to protect such markets. First, it evaluates the independent valuation between the trade and the collaterals. In this case, collaterals are guarantees to recover losses that may be encountered during the trading process which might have arisen from the default of a firm.
Holds the trading title
In these actions, the clearing house is concerned when the trade has been executed by the involved counterparts either on an exchange or directly through the counter to keep the momentum of future market (Scott & Storper, 2012). In this instance, the house assumes the legal counterpart risk for the trade.
Solves settlement failure
In this case, the clearing house acquires collateral guarantee from the firms. The cases of settlement failure where the affected business is determined as its defaulter, the clearing house procedures are applied to solve these problems (Rao, 2012). As a result, orderly liquidation of the defaulting firm may be employed. In other cases, the clearing house steps in and pay all the unsettled debts on behalf of the defaulted firm using its capitalized collateral.
Working of Derivative Markets in GCC
In gulf countries, derivative markets are still on the infancy stage with respect to the developed countries. Despite the fact that they have an improved infrastructure, the level of practicing on the derivative market is still minimal. However, some of the GCC have embraced the derivative market trade as outlined in the following report.
The government report of Bahrain indicates that the first milt-asset exchange known as Bahrain financial exchange launched in the year 2011 in part of Africa and Middle East was the best strategy to initiate derivative market in the region.
This development has hit a milestone over its trading volume since its inception (Davidson, & Smolensky, 2010). BFX has recorded and achieved a constant increase on its growth rate of 69% compounded monthly. On the other hand, cumulative trading turnover exceeding the $50 billion mark was recorded in 2013.
Kuwait is also among the countries that have embraced this market. Ideally, Kuwait has benefited largely from Jordan Kuwait bank that offers the clients a complete set of financial derivatives. Such services include trading in future contracts, precious metals, commodities, interest rates and share indices. This trade has enabled them to participate actively and achieve the best out of it.
The OTC business dominates the prevailing derivative trade among the restricted count of main investment banks within the United Arab Emirates. An equity derivative, NASDAQ, offers services to access centralized marketplace for the development of the derivative market trade.
In Oman, the diversification of this portfolio is still immature. However, there are measures initiated to develop the trade. Major participants incorporate a limited number of banks that are interested in speculating the market movements in order to manage risk.
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Qatar has launched several milestones in the development of derivative market trade. For instance, it launched the universal trading platform which has been going on successfully.
Saudi is the most famous and popular country in the GCC. Its popularity has been contributed vastly by production of innovative items such as CFD and FX. This aspect is attributed to the fact that Saudi local companies trade widely on these products.
This discussion, therefore, proves that GCC countries are still in the process of embracing the derivative market activities since they have not fully attained it. This aspect implies that they may lead in the near future.
Davidson, P., & Smolensky, E. (2010). Derivatives Clearing, Central Counterparties and Novation. New York: Harper & Row.
Rao, B. (2012). Proposals for Improving Global Derivatives Market Statistics. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Scott, A., & Storper, M. (2012). The European Post-Trade Market. Journals of marketing, 41(1), 190-200.