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Literature Summary Table
The established evidence shows that the use of Xenical with lifestyle interventions can lead to better results; at the same time, the side effects of Xenical need to be taken into consideration as well. Some of the authors point out that online communities have a particular perception of the medication; it is seen as a “lifestyle drug” that is regarded as a reflection of their image and life. However, the evidence of such a perception is limited and needs to be investigated further to understand if it is applicable. A positive correlation between the use of Xenical and the reduced chance of diabetes incidence was also established.
|A study conducted by Al-Tabakha, Obaid, Fahelelbom, and Sadek (2016) on Xenical and other (illegal) medications for weight loss||The authors conclude that Xenical is the only medication that is approved by the FDA and sold legally in the UAE; they also argue it is quite effective, especially when supported by a specific diet (Al-Tabakha et al., 2016)|
|A study conducted by Fox, Ward, and O’Rourke (2005) about the link between medications for weight loss and anorexia||The authors claim that online communities perceive Xenical as a lifestyle drug (improves life and users’ experience); therefore, sensible and reflective approach to it is not always granted (Fox et al., 2005)|
|A study on the connection between obesity and diabetes type 2 where participants were treated with Xenical and lifestyle interventions to avoid the incidence of type 2 diabetes.||The authors state that Xenical and lifestyle interventions produced greater weight loss and reduced the chance of diabetes incidence (Torgerson, Hauptman, Boldrin, & Sjöström, 2004)|
|A study that examined the effect of orlistat on obese adults with diabetes also supported the evidence that there are several side effects of this medication.||Aldekhail, Logue, McLoone, and Morrison (2015) claim that Xenical can cause abdominal pain, incontinence, and defecation urgency.|
|A study conducted by Nwobodo (2015) on the toxicity profile of the medication shows that Xenical can be toxic.||Nwobodo (2015) stresses that the use of Xenical can lead to the incidence of renal stone formation.|
|A study of antiobesity medicine shows that Xenical can be effective but has specific side effects.||Del Re, Frayne, and Harris (2014) support the evidence that Xenical can cause steatorrhea, incontinence, and frequent bowel movements.|
|Xenical and diets or lifestyle interventions are more efficient than Xenical alone.||Established|
|Xenical causes abdominal pain, incontinence, defecation urgency.||Established|
|Online communities see Xenical as a sign of a specific lifestyle.||Limited|
|Xenical can lead to renal stone formation.||Limited|
As can be seen from the table, the evidence supports the findings that Xenical is more efficient in those treatments and strategies where lifestyle interventions are included as well. The research on the perception of Xenical by online communities is limited; therefore, statements about Xenical’s perception as a lifestyle drug need to be reviewed with caution.
Contextual factors include access to this type of medication in the UAE, the available cheaper substitutes, and environmental/societal influences (quality of food, possible stigmatization of overweight people, quality of care). Individual factors comprise the potential financial limitations of users of Xenical, past and present illnesses such as diabetes, disabilities related to decreased functionality, asthma, other chronic conditions, and obesity.
Aims and Hypotheses
The general aim of this paper is to understand how the use of Xenical influences the population of the UAE if it brings more advantages or disadvantages, and how the use of this medication is influenced by the local specifics.
The specific aims are to understand whether Xenical is as effective in the UAE as it was proven to be in the various studies if it is preferred to other medications (even illegal), what groups of citizens use it frequently, and if it can be seen as a “conditional recommendation for the management of overweight… adults” (Alfadda et al., 2016, p. 1152).
The hypotheses are the following: The effectiveness of Xenical is seen as sufficient by the population of the UAE. The effectiveness of Xenical is seen as insufficient by the same population. The number of medications for weight loss sold online indicates that Xenical is not the most widely used medication for the treatment of obesity. The availability of weight loss alternatives results in decreased utilization of Xenical as a pharmacotherapy for obesity (Gotthardt & Bello, 2016).
Aldekhail, N. M., Logue, J., McLoone, P., & Morrison, D. S. (2015). Effect of orlistat on glycaemic control in overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obesity Reviews, 16(12), 1071-1080.
Alfadda, A. A., Al-Dhwayan, M. M., Alharbi, A. A., Al Khudhair, B. K., Al Nozha, O. M., Al-Qahtani, N. M., & Brożek, J. L. (2016). The Saudi clinical practice guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults. Saudi Medical Journal, 37(10), 1151-1162.
Al-Tabakha, M. M., Obaid, D. E. E., Fahelelbom, K. M., & Sadek, B. (2016). The impact of modern pharmacy curriculum on the student attitude towards weight loss product advertisements: A case study. Journal of Young Pharmacists, 8(4), 456.
Del Re, A. C., Frayne, S. M., & Harris, A. H. (2014). Antiobesity medication use across the veterans’ health administration: Patient‐level predictors of receipt. Obesity, 22(9), 1968-1972.
Fox, N., Ward, K., & O’Rourke, A. (2005). Pro-Anorexia, weight-loss drugs and the internet: An “anti-recovery” explanatory model of anorexia. Sociology of Health and Illness, 27(5), 944–971.
Gotthardt, J. D., & Bello, N. T. (2016). Can we win the war on obesity with pharmacotherapy? Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology, 9(10), 1289-1297.
Nwobodo, N. N. (2015). Toxicity and safety concerns in orlistat therapy for obesity: A critical evaluation. Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 5(47), 1-4.
Torgerson, L., Hauptman, J., Boldrin, M., & Sjöström, L. (2004). XENical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects. American Diabetes Association, 13(2), 25-30.