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A Diversity of a Workforce: Millennial Generation Dissertation

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Updated: Sep 22nd, 2022

Introduction

A diversity of a workforce is usual. Companies employ people of different race, social status, and age. The most recent part of population known as Millennials constitute the majority of employees today. The researchers still argue as for the time limits for millennial generation. Thus, DelCampo et al. (2011, p. 1) state that Millennials were born within 1981-2000s; Hays (2014, p. 1) limits this period with year 1995; Howe and Strauss (cited in Allen et al. 2015, p. 14) start the count in 1982; Kuron et al. (2014, p. 992) consider Millennials were born between 1980 and 1994. Millennials are also called “Generation Y,” “Nexters,” and “Generation Me” (Kuron et al. 2014, p. 992). Besides, Millennials are characterized with greater race diversity than any other generation. Thus, representatives of minority ethnic groups make 47 percent of the generation while the previous generation X had only 37 percent (DeVaney 2015, p. 12).

As of 2015, Millennials constituted 35 percent of the workforce which was about 54 million people (Espinoza & Ukleja 2016, p. 3). Moreover, after 2025 three quarters of employees are expected to be from Millennial generation (Espinoza & Ukleja 2016, p. 4). Thus, an efficient manager should be able to deal with the representatives of this generation since they are known for some peculiarities in education, attitude to work, value system, and relations at workplace.

Peculiarities of Millennial Education

Then period in which the Millennials grew up is characterized with “increased education and diversity” (DelCampo et al. 2011, p. 16) which conditioned a more tolerant environment. Jayson (cited in DelCampo et al. 2011, p. 17) considers Millennials more educated than the previous generations with two times more students going to college and the increasing determination to obtain a degree. Moreover, they are characterised with the interest in continuous education after graduation. Thus, they combine studies and work.

One of the significant factors influencing the Millennial generation is technology. It has impact on both education and practice. Gibson and Sodeman (2014) provide an investigation of current condition of relations between Millennials and technology. The authors mention the changes in the knowledge delivery due to the technology development (Gibson & Sodeman 2014, p. 64). Since technology is an integral part of a job marked, the system of education is supposed to meet those demands. The research on the millennial generation, who make up a substantial part of contemporary students, proves the necessity of technology usage. Its application in “the classroom and through online applications are one of the best ways to connect with students” (Gibson & Sodeman 2014, p. 65).

According to Hall and Austin, “educators have a role to play in preparing the next generation of the workforce” (2016, p. 43). It means that Millennials can be educated about the diversity of generations within the workplace. Moreover, skills of managing the possible conflicts that may appear due to those differences can be useful for future employees.

Hoover, Giambastia and Tribble (2016) suggest an organizational development approach to experiential learning with millennials. The educators of Association for Business Simulation and Experiential Learning consider contemporary Millennial students a challenge for teachers (Hoover, Giambastia & Tribble 2016, p. 27). The authors develop some conceptual models “based on organizational development approaches to change that can address newly emerging trends towards a preference in current students for simplicity and economy in data/information processing as opposed to the requisite willingness to address systemic complexity” (Hoover, Giambastia & Tribble 2016, p. 27). The researchers also state that Millennials have disposition for narcissism which can influence their education and work choices (Hoover, Giambastia & Tribble 2016, p. 28). Another quality characteristic of Millennials is complexity avoidance.

Millennial Expectations at Work

People come to work with a set of expectations. They can be various and often include a career growth, increased income, self-realisation, etc. Mui (cited in DelCampo et al. 2011, p. 20) characterized Millennials as “a generation that expects the world at 27 years old.” However, the economic crises had restricted the expectations of this generation at work. They came to realise that climbing a corporal ladder needs much efforts and work. According to Rushowy (cited in DelCampo et al. 2011, p. 21), Millennials are likely to change jobs looking for a better place. Longing for a balance in live, they appreciate the standard working hours.

As a rule, most of the employees expect job satisfaction when they start working. A study by Hays (2014) investigates the differences between millennial and all employee levels of job satisfaction and its importance. One of the findings of the survey indicated that job satisfaction depends on age. However, the studies revealed both linear and non-linear relationship between the two concepts (Hays 2014, p. 2). For example, Halloran and Benton (cited in Hays 2014, p. 2) revealed that job satisfaction is higher when an employee starts his or her first job and decreases when a person faces retirement. The survey also proved the importance of good supervisors and professional growth for job satisfaction (Hays 2014, p. 3). As for correlation of generation and job satisfaction, the Millennials appeared to be slightly less satisfied with current position (75%) then other generations (81%) (Hays 2014, p. 4).

Since Millennials are reported to be self-continent and self-relied, they are ” independent, individualistic, and socially active and like to work in teams” (Ozcelik 2015, p. 102). Thus, when they start their work, they highly expect appreciation, support, and all kinds of benefits from employers (Ozcelik 2015, p. 102). They need distinct instructions and approval from the managers. In addition, Millennials value the opportunities for self-development and education which are the keys to career progress.

System of Values: How Are Millennials Different?

Although Millennials entered the workforce not long time ago, they have already developed their particular values. DelCampo et al. summarise the values of Millennials as “moralism, confidence, positivity, environmental consciousness” (2011, p. 11). They also single out some work-related values which include “passion, balance, leisure, and security” (DelCampo et al. 2011, p. 11). One of the important values for Millennials is flexibility (DelCampo et al. 2011, p. 30). They often want to continue their education; thus a flexible work schedule is necessary. According to Cennamo and Gardner (cited in DelCampo et al. 2011, p. 32), Millennials value “work/life balance, life styles, career development and overseas travel more than other generations. and may be the most adaptable yet in terms of technological skills and has been said to value intrinsic aspects of work such as mentoring and training in order to remain marketable.” DeVaney describes the traits typical of Millennials as “entitled, optimistic, civic minded, close parental involvement, values work-life balance, impatient, multitasking, and team oriented” (2015, p. 13). Kuron et al. (2015) investigate how Millennial work values differ on various life and career stages. It is a profound study with the sample of Millennial employees. The research revealed that both pre-career and working Millennials ranged the major work values in different ways (Kuron et al. 2015, p. 996). The five major values included interesting work, achievement, good co-workers, doing work that helped people and salary. However, these dissimilarities were not big. The research has findings meaningful both for practice and further investigations. First of all, it suggests that pre-career Millennials may be interested in companies which focus on “collegial work environment and socially responsible culture” (Kuron et al. 2015, p. 1001). Secondly, Millennials will rather choose a position which provides interesting tasks together with “work-life balance, job security and the information workers need to do their jobs effectively” (Kuron et al. 2015, p. 1001).

Millennials: A Generation of Challenge

A research by DeVaney (2015) states that millennials have to face some challenges in their careers. Thy include “a slow job market and a lot of college loan debt” (DeVaney 2015, p. 12). The College Board (cited in DeVaney 2015, p. 12) concluded that in the academic year 2012/2013 more than a half of bachelor’s degree students graduated with the average debt of $27,300. Besides, Millennials observe recession and a challenging economics with its crises. On of their reactions to the challenges was a social protest. For example, the representatives of Millennial generation continue living with parents after graduation, do not marry early, postpone buying the houses of their own or initiating their own businesses (DeVaney 2015, p. 12). A literary review by Smith and Nichols (2015) suggests some other challenges of this generations. The authors state that Millennials are often concentrated on the achievements (Smith & Nichols 2015, p. 40). Such focus can be challenging since the absence of achievements will decrease job motivation and satisfaction. Moreover, Millennials are known as eager team workers. However, diverse teams consisting of representatives of different generations may not always be productive since Millennials may conflict with other group members. On the other hand, Millennials usually demonstrate more tolerance to something or someone different than prior generations (Smith and Nichols 2015, p. 40). Due to the fact that Millennials are used to applying technologies, they become dependent on modern devices which can cause problems with tasks which do not need any technology.

Recruiting and Managing Millennials at Work

A successful management of a workforce presupposes the knowledge of employees’ peculiarities. In conditions of a multi-generation workplace it is crucial for managers to be aware of particular features that the employees of different generations possess. It will help to manage the workforce successfully and avoid the possible conflicts. Researchers are not unanimous as for the Millennial traits. For example, Allen et al. provided a research comparing the level of entitlement of Millennials, Baby Boomers, and Gen Xers (2015, p. 14). They suggested two hypotheses supposing that Millennials will demonstrate a higher level of entitlement than Baby Boomers and Gen Xers (Allen et al. 2015, p. 20). A literary review that preceded this research revealed that entitlement may depend on age. Thus, “older workers may actually be more benevolent and younger workers more entitled” (Allen et al. 2015, p. 20). However, other researches did not show any significant role of age concerning the sense of equity (Allen et al. 2015, p.20). Thus, the supposition was made that entitlement can depend on a generation group rather than age. The research was anonymous and voluntary. The participants were selected among the graduate business students at a public university. Students were supposed to complete the suggested questionnaire. Besides, they were asked to invite two other people to answer the questions. The three questionnaires were supposed to come from representatives of different generations. The final sample included 352 people. The distribution of generation representatives was almost equal (106 Baby Boomers (30.2%), 117 Gen Xer’s (33.2%), and 129 Millennials (36.6%) (Allen et al. 2015, p. 21). The results of the research revealed that Millennials had the lowest Equity Sensitivity Instrument scores. Consequently, they are most entitled (Allen et al. 2015, p. 21). On the contrary, Baby Boomers were considered most benevolent. Moreover, a Scheffe Post Hoc test proved that Millennials were substantially more entitled than both the Gen Xers and the Baby Boomers thus supporting both hypothesis.

DelCampo et al. consider Millennials “the quickest growing segment of the workforce” (2011, p. 10). Technology was one of the leading factors that influenced all the spheres pf Millennials’ life. It also conditioned the ability of Millennials to provide multi-task activities. Other skills considered important for the employees are computer skills and teamwork which are also the result of technology use, online networking in particular. One more thing to consider when working with the Millennials is their ambitions which sometimes lead to narcissist behaviour (DelCampo et al. 2011, p. 18).

Recruiting Millennials also has some peculiarities to consider. They appreciate a realistic description of the position and flexibility (DelCampo et al. 2011, p. 58). Internship can also be a successful recruitment strategy since it allows employees to evaluate a workplace, and the employers have a chance to choose the best candidates. Since Millennials value the harmony of professional life and work, they will appreciate the benefits such as work flexibility or fitness facilities (DelCampo et al. 2011, p. 59). Caraher mentions another peculiarity of recruiting Millennials (cited in DeVaney 2015, p. 13): “It’s not a question of whether or not they are right for the job, it’s a question of is the job right for them.” Millennials are sure in their abilities and prefer working in smaller companies where they may have more influence.

A book by Espinoza and Ukleja (2016) presents the results of a two-year study. They conducted the interviews with hundreds of employees and managers engaged in various jobs. The study data were used to model the behaviour of different generations. One of the problems with Millennials that may cause conflicts was the disagreement of values possessed by different generations. Moreover, the authors suggest the ways to solve conflicts a cross generation working environment. The research showed that the most successful managers had some experience with youth organizations. They transferred the skills effective with youth which include initiating relationships, and being patient to set expectations to their work. These strategies appeared to be efficient in managing the Millennial employees.

The preferences in the workplace communication should also be considered in managing Millennials. A survey conducted by Hall and Austin (2016) provides some suggestions to be implied both in business and education. The findings reveal that almost one half of Millennial employees want the company information be shared on “a need to know basis” (Hall & Austin 2016, p. 38). As for employee-manager relationship, the opinions differed. Some employees prefer “strictly professional” or “straight business relationship,” and others needed other kind of relationships while maintaining professionalism (Hall & Austin 2016, p.39-40). Some participants reported the necessity of “healthy communication” and an “open relationship communications wise” together with “the ability to talk to the boss about work-related problems or concerns” (Hall & Austin 2016, p. 39). Feedback was also stated as a crucial component of successful communication. However, the study has limitations since it included only Millennials with higher education.

Since Millennials may be very selective in employment, the managers need strategies to engage the best candidates and provide their retention. A study by Ozcelic (2015) suggests internal branding to keep Millennial workforce interested. In a modern competitive business environment, it is important to keep both customers and employees interested in a company (Ozcelic 2015, p. 99). Internal branding which is “a set of strategic activities of a corporation to provide and ensure intellectual and emotional employee buy-in” (Ozcelic 2015, p. 100), is a way to make the employees more concentrated on company and customers. It can be achieved through the implementation of different strategies and policies aimed at the development of a “positive attitude towards the brand and brand values” (Ozcelic 2015, p. 100). Since Millennial workforce is dynamic and tends to change several jobs, the employers are concerned of retention of skilled workers. Thus, internal branding may be helpful to keep the employees in their positions longer.

Perspectives of Millennial Generation

The Millennial generation will soon dominate the workforce over the world. They are promising employees but possible misunderstandings between generations can negatively influence their performance at work (Smith & Nichols 2015, p. 44). Still, their efficiency can be preserved withy proper management. Millennials possess some strengths that differ them from other generations and make them perspective employees. They are often defined as “digital natives” (DeVaney 2015, p. 12) thus being able to apply and create new technologies. Some researchers consider Millennials promising employees. For example, Huyler et al. (2015, p.114) present the study of Millennials in the workplace as a component of future success of companies they are engaged with. Their values and ideas such as communal approach to management, the representatives of this generation alter the development of organization, the ways of employees’ engagement, and response to contemporary technological progress (Huyler et al. 2015, p. 115). Since Millennials are less resistant to changes which are the demand of present time, they become wanted employees in various spheres.

Opportunities for Further Research

The current review showed a variety of recent studies dedicated to the issue of Millennial generation at work. It is obvious that in the following two decades Millennials will make than majority of the world workforce. Millennial employees are diverse. They represent different races and professions. However, they are united by the peculiar features characteristic of this generation. Millennials are self-confident and achievement-focused. They have big ambitions and believe they can do whatever they want. The Millennial employees are a challenge for employers. They expect interesting positions and the variety of bonuses. They want to have fun at the workplace. Besides, they eagerly continue education, thus they value flexibility. Since Millennials are technically educated, they prefer solving tasks with the help of technologies. The specific traits of the growing workforce stimulate the employers for creation of new positions and favourable work environment. Moreover, Millennials are characterised with job-hopping. They are in search of new more promising opportunities.

One of the less investigated aspects of Millennials as a workforce is their perspective in the job market. The representatives of Millennial generation are usually smart young people with good education. Thus, it is the task of company managers to turn the promising applicants into a successful workforce. Consequently, the enhanced ways of recruiting Millennials, establishing them as professionals, and retaining them in a workplace should be developed. These strategies should consider the specific features that Millennials possess. First of all, the peculiarities of Millennials’ style of learning and their desire for the continuous education should be regarded. Secondly, the unique value system of Millennials should be regarded. It will be also useful to consider the expectations that the representatives of Millennial generation have when they start their first job. Moreover, the challenges that both Millennials and their employers face during the cooperation should be taken into account. Finally, the peculiarities of managing Millennials as the workforce should be studies as the basis for the development of new efficient strategies.

Research Methodology

This qualitative phenomenological research aims to investigate the peculiar features of Millennials as a workforce. Millennials will make more than 75 percent of employees by 2025 (Espinoza & Ukleja 2016, p. 4). Millennial generation possesses unique values which influence their behaviour as employees (DelCampo et al. 2011; DeVaney 2015; Kuron et al. 2015). Thus, managers need specific approaches to deal with Millennial employees. Millennials are more entitled (Allen et al. 2015), capable of using modern technologies (DelCampo et al. 2011); ambitious, achievement-concentrated, and self-confident (Smith & Nichols 2015). However, then previous researches provide data on Millennials who have already started their career. They can be called “earlier Millennials” and were more influenced by the previous generations. The second wave of this generation, born on the eve of Millennium, is graduating the colleges and universities and is in search of jobs. They will enter the workforce in the recent two decades and are likely to change it. Consequently, managers will have to deal with new employees who may demonstrate behaviour different from that of Millennials of earlier years. They will need support to manage a new wave of workers. Thus, relevant recent data are necessary.

Research Philosophy

The current research is based on the philosophy of interpretivism. It is commonly applied with investigations in social sciences. It presupposes the interpretation of the obtained data and the interest of a researcher. A common approach for data collection in interpretivism is a questionnaire. The nature of reality in interpretivism is considered to be socially constructed. As a rule, the aim of the research is to understand a certain phenomenon and predict some development. It coincides with the aim of the current investigation which is to reveal the peculiarities of Millennial generation as workforce. Despite the subjectivity of interpretivism, it is the best philosophy for qualitative researches. Interpretivism studies are considered valid since the information gathered in such researches is usually trustworthy and accurate.

Research Approach

The research itself will be based on an inductive approach. It includes observation of the existing theories and investigations. With inductive approach, theories can be formulated after the research is conducted. This approach suits the current research best of all. Since the aim of the research is to design strategies to manage Millennials as the workforce, the previous study of existing ways and methods is necessary. Thus, it will be a study using qualitative methods which are characteristic of the inductive approach. Inductive approach allows the use of existing theories to work out research questions. Nevertheless, the new theory should be based on the research results. The structure of inductive reasoning (from tests or observations to the theory) is applicable with current research. After the data collection and analysis, the researcher is expected to generate strategies that can be used by managers in work with Millennial workforce.

Research Strategy

A survey strategy is suitable for this kind of investigation. A questionnaire is the best possible method to use in this research since it allows collecting comparable qualitative data from a big number of people. Although it does not allow obtaining as many details as the interview, it provides a broader access to the target audience. Besides, it enables to attract a bigger sample. Its disadvantage is that it preparation is time-consuming and demands much care to design questions covering the research problems. However, a properly-structured questionnaire can be delivered to more people to get the answers. The interview with the same number of participants will take much more time and efforts. Finally, questionnaires are suitable to discover some features of a certain group. Millennials make this group; thus the application of a questionnaire is grounded.

Research Instruments

Thus, the data necessary for research can be obtained through the survey based on a questionnaire. The research findings will be used to develop new efficient strategies of managing the representatives of Millennial generation in the workforce. Questionnaire will be the major research instrument. Most of the questions will be open-ended. They are typical of a qualitative research. However, some questions in the beginning of the questionnaire have to be close-ended. They will evaluate the category of a participant (graduate or already working), age, and gender. These quantitative data are not decisive. Nevertheless, they will be used during the interpretation of qualitative data to provide a more distinct picture. In addition, some scaling questions can be useful to assess the values of the Millennial employees. The questions will be designed to cover the peculiarities of Millennial generation representatives who are graduating or have already started work recently. The research is interested in the newest coming workforce and its specific features.

Population and Sample

The research population comprises the Millennial generation. More precisely, the research will investigate the representatives of Millennial generation born within the period from 1990 to 1998. Thus, the age range will be from 19 to 27. They can be college or university graduates and young employees within the first years of their careers. The research is interested in young work force. The research will use the method of stratified sampling. It is a kind of random sampling which selects the research participants from certain sub-groups. In case of Millennials research, the two groups are graduate students and already working individuals. The research will apply disproportionate stratified random sampling since the number of participants from each group is not essential for the final goal of the research. The expected sample is 300 people. Thus, at least 1,000 questionnaires should be distributed if the response rate is estimated at 30 percent.

Data Collection

The researcher will contact college and university administrations to find volunteers for the research. Moreover, employment centres and companies employing graduates will be involved to attract working volunteers. The questionnaires will be distributed through e-mails. They will be accompanied with the detailed instructions and an informed consent form. Questionnaires can be completed in three ways. They can be filled using a word processor, printed and completed by hand or filled on-line in Google forms. The completed questionnaires can be sent through e-mail (scanned if completed in writing). When competed on-line, no sending is necessary. The feedback is expected within 10-days period. Longer period does not look efficient since young participants may forget about the questions they are supposed to answer.

Ethical Considerations

The participation in the research is voluntary. Any volunteer can stop participation any moment. The participation is anonymous. No names or other personal details of interviewees as well as the information on their institutions will not be used in the presentation of the results’ analysis. Every participant will receive an informed consent where the details of interview that will be used in the research will be mentioned. For graduate students and new employees no personal presence is necessary. The questionnaires will be distributed and collected through e-mail. It also guarantees anonymity and personal data security.

Data Analysis

The questionnaire forms will be collected from all supposed sources. They will be divided into two groups: those from college and university graduates and from young employees. The calculations will be provided to estimate the average age of participants and the gender correlation. Next step is to work out the codes that will help to interpret the obtained data. The codes will correspond the questionnaire entries and help to assess the answers of the participants. They will cover the issues of ambitions, job expectations, the preference of tasks and form of work, picture of a manager, wishes of job conditions, the major values associated with job, and finally the career perspectives.

The second step of data analysis includes the description of themes and relations of various concepts. Since it is a qualitative research, there are no universal methods of interpreting the findings. Consequently, the analysis of data will be provided according to a scheme developed by a researcher considering the peculiarities of the investigation. One of the methods that can be applied for data analysis in this research is the research of repetitive phrases and words in the answers of respondents. This method will allow to identify the similar answers to the questions as well as unique responds.

The third step presupposes summarizing the obtained information. It is the last stage of data analysis. It is the time to compare the obtained results with the previously set aims and objectives. This part of data analysis underlines the main results.

Research Reliability and Validity

It is difficult to assess the reliability of a qualitative research with the method of stratified sampling. Even with use of the same questionnaire the respondents are not likely to give the same answers. However, in case the same population group, i.e. Millennial graduates and young employees, are the participants, the obtained results can be approximately the same. It is possible due to the fact that similar qualities are characteristic of the whole generation of workers. Nevertheless, the results will not be the same within another age group or workers with more experience.

The research findings can be considered valid. There was enough time to complete the questionnaire. The questions were properly structured and not biased. The use of methodology was grounded. It was selected considering the peculiarities of the study. The sample of the study was appropriate. It suits the research aim in the best possible way. The respondents did not observe any pressure. The questionnaire was anonymous, hence the answers are expected to be true and honest. A sample of 300 participants can be considered representative.

Research Limitations

Although the respondents are expected to give honest answers due to the provided data security, their answers may not be true because of their personal receptions. Besides, since the participation in a survey is based on volunteers, it is difficult to provide the equal representation of male and female participants or guarantee the correlation of graduates and already working Millennials. One more limitation is that the research method cannot be applied on another age group or generation with the same results.

Ethical Considerations

The participation in the research is voluntary. Any volunteer can stop participation any moment. The participation is anonymous. No names or other personal details of interviewees as well as the information on their institutions will not be used in the presentation of the results’ analysis. Every participant will receive an informed consent where the details of interview that will be used in the research will be mentioned. For graduate students and new employees no personal presence is necessary. The questionnaires will be distributed and collected through e-mail. It also guarantees anonymity and personal data security.

Data Analysis

The questionnaire forms will be collected from all supposed sources. They will be divided into two groups: those from college and university graduates and from young employees. The calculations will be provided to estimate the average age of participants and the gender correlation. Next step is to work out the codes that will help to interpret the obtained data. The codes will correspond the questionnaire entries and help to assess the answers of the participants. They will cover the issues of ambitions, job expectations, the preference of tasks and form of work, picture of a manager, wishes of job conditions, the major values associated with job, and finally the career perspectives.

The second step of data analysis includes the description of themes and relations of various concepts. Since it is a qualitative research, there are no universal methods of interpreting the findings. Consequently, the analysis of data will be provided according to a scheme developed by a researcher considering the peculiarities of the investigation. One of the methods that can be applied for data analysis in this research is the research of repetitive phrases and words in the answers of respondents. This method will allow to identify the similar answers to the questions as well as unique responds.

The third step presupposes summarizing the obtained information. It is the last stage of data analysis. It is the time to compare the obtained results with the previously set aims and objectives. This part of data analysis underlines the main results.

Reference List

Allen, RS, Allen, DE, Karl, K & White, CS 2015, ‘Are Millennials really an entitled generation? An investigation into generational equity sensitivity differences’, Journal of Business Diversity, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 14-26.

DelCampo, RG, Haggerty, LA, Haney, MJ & Knippel, LA 2011, Managing the multi-generation workforce, Gower, Burlington, VT.

DeVaney, S 2015, ‘Understanding the Millennial generation’, Journal of Financial Service Professionals, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 11-14.

Espinoza, C & Ukleja M 2016, Managing the Millennials: discover the core competencies for managing today’s workforce, 2nd edn, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.

Gibson, LA & Sodeman, WA 2014, ‘ Millennials and technology: addressing the communication gap in education and practice’, Organization Development Journal, pp. 63-75

Hall, A & Austin, SF 2016, ‘Exploring the workplace communication preferences of Millennials’, Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 35-44.

Hays, DW 2014, ‘ Examining differences between Millennial and all employee levels of job satisfaction and importance and satisfaction with the immediate supervisor relationship’, International Journal of Managerial Studies and Research, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 1-7.

Hoover, JD, Giambastia, RC & Tribble, L 2016, ‘An organizational development approach to experiential learning with Millennials’, Developments in Business Simulation and Experiential Learning, vol. 43, pp. 27-31.

Huyler D, Pierre Y, Ding W & Norelus A 2015, ‘Millennials in the workplace: positioning companies for future success’, Proceedings of The 14th Annual South Florida Education Research Conference, pp. 114-120.

Kuron, L, Lyons, S, Schweitzer, L & Ng ESW 2015, ‘Millennials’ work values: differences across the school to work transition’, Personnel Review, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 991-1009.

Ozcelik, G 2015, ‘Engagement and retention of the Millennial generation in the workplace through internal branding’, International Journal of Business and Management, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 99-107.

Smith, TJ & Nichols, T 2015, ‘Understanding the Millennial generation’, Journal of Business Diversity, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 39-47.

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