Education greatly depends on the changes made in social structures, economy and technology. Educational programs are focused on developing skills that enable students to successfully cope with these changes. Consequently, one could not but notice improvements in K-12 and adult learning programs.
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Learning on the ground of K-12 adult education is based on lifelong learning program. The program goal is to educate learners who could fit in the flexible global standards. For example, in heutagogy, a student develops learning competencies and capabilities that will enable him/her to adapt him/herself to the constantly changing world economy of knowledge. In achieving this goal, students have been exposed to independent learning system.
Adult learners are able to cope with heutagogy following andragogy programs. In andragogy, learning environment is controlled by a facilitator or instructor. It is the work of the instructor to provide learning resources and guidelines to the student. The instructors fully develop learning path and determine how various learning areas will be covered and assessed. This environment creates an avenue for heutology learning, since it forms the basics of reflection and problem solving (Shton & Elliot, 2007).
Consequently, self-reflection and single-loop knowledge acquisition in andragogy gives way to the double loop in the heutagogy. Heutagogy exposes students to problem solving; assists them to reflect and come up with the appropriate solution for the outcomes. The goal is to model students so that they are able to overcome word challenges.
Ways of developing solution methods are originally inherited from andragogy, which exposes the student to similar situations with the help of instructor. K-12 adult learning commonly tests the student’s assumptions and values as central factors influencing learning environment. Andragogy prepares the student for independency (Merriam, Caffarella & Baumgartner, 2006).
Capability among the students in heutagogy programs has been instilled through ensuring they develop learning knowledge and reflect upon their courses through instructor guidance in andragogy. The pillars of heutagogy are communication and teamwork skills. The student develop these skills in the andragogy under instructor’s guidance.
The students are taught in andragogy classes to be creative in handling complex problems, which is vital in heutagogy. On the other hand, heutagogy ensures that the students’ creativity enables them to adapt to complex situations. Andragogy programs also create flexibility of the students’ knowledge. Heutagogy presupposes utilization of the skills helping to develop the student’s character for adapting to the current postmodern world. Hence, heutagogy could be considered a more successful study that andragogy (Shton & Elliot, 2007).
K-12 and adult learning programs identify the progressive nature of learning. Learning is seen to progress from pedagogy, andragogy and then to heutagogy. As a result, no sharp distinctions can be drawn from these learning programs, except the student’s indecency increases with the level.
Learning environment in both learning programs follows flexible curriculum. Just like in heutagogy, andragogy learning environment is both flexible for both students and teachers. Consequently, modern technological tools such as web 2.0 could easily be incorporated in heutagogy (Galbraith, 2004).
There are no sharp differences between andragogy and heutagogy while discussing learning and assessment except that heutagogy has learners’ directed methods. Both heutagogy and andragogy students go along the similar ways of problem identification through discussions and research studies.
Adult learners are believed to have mastered the principles of research and group work, which are introduced in andragogy through facilitator’s guidance. Learning modes in both andragogy and heutagogy are geared towards equipping the students with knowledge that will enable them to adapt to the postmodern world.
Galbraith, M. W. (2004). Adult learning methods: A guide for effective instruction (3rded.). Malabar, FL: Krieger Publishing Company.
Merriam, S., Caffarella, R., & Baumgartner, L. (2006). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Shton, J., & Elliot, R. (2007). Juggling the balls – study, work, family and play: Student perspectives on flexible and blended heutagogy. European Early Childhood Education Research Journal,15(2), 167-181.