Home > Free Essays > Transportation > Air Transport > Air Transportation: Airport Commercialization and Threats
Cite this

Air Transportation: Airport Commercialization and Threats Essay


Introduction

According to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the global demand for commercial air transport recovered and has since increased from the year 2010 (International Civil Aviation Organization 6). Between the year 2009 and 2010, there was a remarkable demand for scheduled commercial flights, which rose by 4.5 percent globally. This represented positive financial results for the aviation industry.

Consequently, in this context of increased demand for commercial flights and the expected growth in the aviation industry, the industry has continued to focus on safety measures to improve outcomes and potential threats in the future. However, increased airport commercialisation has also exposed the industry to increased threats. This essay explores the increased airport commercial activities and threats to the aviation industry.

Negative

In the year 2010, ICAO noted that there was a resurgence of traffic in the aviation industry. However, there was an increase in the number of accidents estimated at 4.0 for every million departures. This was a slight increase relative to the previous year’s record.

The organisation assesses aviation accident cases for scheduled commercial flights based on the United Nations designated regions.

Africa recorded the highest rate of regional accidents. It also accounts for the least number of global air traffic volumes (3%).

The Asian region had the lowest rate of accident. However, it had the highest number of accidents, which accounted for fatalities (38% represented fatal accidents in the region).

The European region had a slightly low rate relative to the global average accident rate. Also, it experiences a few cases of fatalities (8%).

About 31% of accidents result in fatalities in Latin America and the Caribbean. The region only accounts for 13% of the commercial scheduled flights.

North America continues to record accident rates that are below the world’s average. It had the highest number of accidents, but there were no cases of fatal accidents noted in the year 2010.

The Oceanic region also records low rates of air accidents relative to North America. It also did not record any fatal accidents in the year 2010.

It is imperative to consider different rates of traffic volumes in different regions to draw a practical conclusion when examining accidents and other negative impacts of increased commercial aviation activities.

In the recent reports, ICAO has noted that the number of aviation accidents has slight declined relative to the previous years. However, increased traffic volumes have led to high rates of accidents against millions of flights recorded every year. On this note, the year 2011 remained the safest in the history of commercial flights. Turner noted that most accidents involved on-demand flights (Turner 1).

Apart from accidents, the commercial aviation industry also faces other forms of threats and security concerns from different sources.

Cyber threats

Since the recent incident, which involved the missing Malaysian Airlines Flight MH370, many security experts have turned on the possibility of hacking airplane systems and securing its total control (Paganini 1). Many experts have touted this theory as a major threat in the growing aviation industry.

Although the search for the missing flight is on progress, some security analysts and experts have explored the possibility of a cyberattack against the flight. Some have claimed that hackers could have infiltrated the entertainment system to gain complete control of the airplane. Security experts have noted that such attacks are possible on airplanes because hackers can exploit specific vulnerable features within the airplane.

Terrorism

Another emerging threat to the growing airline industry is terrorism. Terrorism risks pose serious threats to the industry due to its vulnerability. Terrorists can infiltrate intelligence and attack airplanes or hold onboard passengers hostage.

Therefore, the industry must understand how terrorists can infiltrate their security measures. In this regard, the industry should understand proliferation, intelligence, and prevention measures required in the aviation industry. Also, they must consider vulnerability and survivability in cases of attacks (O’Sullivan 4). Despite the rapid expansion and thriving commercial activities in the air transport industry, the industry stakeholders should address terrorist threats and develop appropriate response strategies and policies in cases of attacks.

Volcanic ash

This is a natural threat, which has continued to affect commercial flight schedules. It leads to flight cancellation and causes massive losses.

Extended diversion time operations (EDTOs)

Currently, there are no clear guidelines for EDTOs in the aviation industry. Consequently, operators lack a specific guideline to follow. Thus, there are no clear safety standards about EDTOs and its implementation processes.

Dangerous goods

As the demand for commercial fights surges, there are also growing concerns for dangerous cargo. Such goods pose security concerns and safety to the airplane and its passengers. Dangerous goods remain major sources of security concern for the industry.

Runway safety concerns

Several accidents have resulted from collisions between airplanes and cars on runways. Therefore, runway safety concerns continue to affect the commercial aviation industry. The Runway Safety Measures account for safe flights during the start and conclusion. This measure remains one of the highest priorities among aviation safety authorities. Pilots, traffic controllers, and vehicle drivers must adhere to Runway Safety Measures.

Accident investigations

Accident investigations tend to take long in the aviation industry. This implies that the increasing number of commercial airplanes and accidents may require additional resources to facilitate investigations and implementation of recommendations.

Human fatigue factors

The growing expansion and demands for flights in the aviation industry have led to human fatigue issues. Human fatigue issues are risk factors in aviation safety concerns. Human fatigue may result from many and combined factors like temperature, light, noise, sleep, and vibration, among others.

These multifaceted factors accelerate fatigue, affect outputs, and change the lifestyle habits of the workforce. Consequently, the aviation industry collects data on fatigue-related factors to determine their impacts on the growing aviation industry (McGee 1).

This indicates that fatigue is a major source of concern for the workforce in the aviation industry and may pose a serious challenge to its growth.

Positive outcomes

Commercial flights and revenues have increased in the commercial aviation industry due to rapid demands for air transport services. While there were also cases of accidents, including fatal ones, ICAO noted that commercial airplane accidents reduced in the year 2011 relative to previous years (International Civil Aviation Organization 1). The trend continued in the year 2012.

According to ICAO, such positive trends in the aviation industry indicate progress, which results from ongoing collaborative safety measures. Also, there have been specific improvements in runway safety procedures.

ICAO and other aviation stakeholders have stressed the relevance of safety based on collected data from its member states, particularly from commercial flights. The organisation continues to work with other international bodies in the aviation industry to enhance safety and achieve a maximum global reduction in accidents.

The emphasis has been on improving safety performances and outcomes, particularly in areas with high rates of fatal accidents or with certain safety issues. The organisation also provides regular State of Global Safety report to address challenges in the sector at the global, regional, and state levels. In this regard, stakeholders in the commercial aviation industry have focused on several initiatives to enhance safety performances, reduce threats, and promote a safe industry for a passenger. Some of the approaches involve:

Implementation of the Runway Safety Measures

IATA, ICAO, and other safety authorities in the airline industry have formulated the Runway Safety Program, which promotes safety in the aviation industry globally. The Runway Safety Measures account for safe flights during the start and conclusion. This measure remains one of the highest priorities among aviation safety authorities. Pilots, traffic controllers, and vehicle drivers must adhere to Runway Safety Measures.

A focus on the IATA Operational Safety Audit (IOSA)

The IATA Operational Safety Audit (IOSA) is a safety approach that has achieved global recognition and acceptance in the aviation industry. The IOSA evaluates and assesses operational processes and control elements of airlines (Fadugba, 2006). IATA members must obtain IOSA registration, and they have to uphold their registration to remain members of IATA.

Safety Management System (SMS)

SMS is a systematic strategy for managing safety issues in the aviation industry. It accounts for the suitable “organizational structures, procedures, accountability and policies” (International Air Transport Association, 2012), which can meet safety standards in the aviation industry.

The IATA Operational Safety Audit (IOSA) is a safety approach that has achieved global recognition and acceptance in the aviation industry. The IOSA evaluates and assesses operational processes and control elements of airlines (Fadugba, 2006). IATA members must obtain IOSA registration, and they have to uphold their registration to remain members of IATA.

Flight Data Analysis (FDA)

Implementation of the FDA is an important approach to enhance safety in the air transport industry in Africa. The IATA promotes the “Implementation Program for Safe Operations in Africa (IPSOA) to ensure that flight data analysis tools are available to all IATA carriers in Africa” (International Air Transport Association, 2012).

Studies on human fatigue factors

The aviation industry conducts extensive studies to determine factors that have negative impacts on its human resources and growth strategies. The major objectives of such studies include:

  • Setting the right working hours for aviation mechanics, traffic controllers and airplane crew
  • Evaluating recommended levels of rest and sleep
  • Developing and encouraging members to adopt fatigue management strategies and assessing the impacts of such approaches on the workforce

Conclusion

There is increased commercialisation of flights in the aviation industry. This condition has facilitated growths and returns for investors. On the other hand, threats and safety issues to the industry have also emerged. Such threats include potential acts of terrorism, cyber threats, safety implementation, and investigation processes, human fatigue, accidents, including fatal ones, runway accidents, and dangerous goods.

However, the industry has managed to control the number of accidents through collaborative processes on safety matters. Overall, the most effective strategy to mitigate threats in the industry must focus on potential errors, control measures, and increased vigilance. Such approaches will ensure flight and passenger safety for the growth of the aviation industry.

Works Cited

Fadugba, Nick. Improving air safety in Africa. 2006. Web.

International Air Transport Association. . 2012. Web.

International Civil Aviation Organization. 2011 State of Global Aviation Safety Report. Montréal, Canada: ICAO, 2011. Print.

McGee, Bill. . 2007. Web.

O’Sullivan, Terry. External Terrorist Threats to Civilian Airliners: A Summary Risk Analysis of MANPADS, Other Ballistic Weapons Risks, Future Threats, and Possible Countermeasures Policies. Los Angeles, CA: USC Center for Homeland Security, 2005. Print.

Paganini, Pierluigi. Cyber Threats against the Aviation Industry. 2014. Web.

Turner, Aimee. General aviation accidents increased: NTSB. 2012. Web.

This essay on Air Transportation: Airport Commercialization and Threats was written and submitted by your fellow student. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly.

Need a custom Essay sample written from scratch by
professional specifically for you?

Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar
Writer online avatar

301 certified writers online

GET WRITING HELP
Cite This paper

Select a referencing style:

Reference

IvyPanda. (2020, April 3). Air Transportation: Airport Commercialization and Threats. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/air-transportation-airport-commercialization-and-threats/

Work Cited

"Air Transportation: Airport Commercialization and Threats." IvyPanda, 3 Apr. 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/air-transportation-airport-commercialization-and-threats/.

1. IvyPanda. "Air Transportation: Airport Commercialization and Threats." April 3, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/air-transportation-airport-commercialization-and-threats/.


Bibliography


IvyPanda. "Air Transportation: Airport Commercialization and Threats." April 3, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/air-transportation-airport-commercialization-and-threats/.

References

IvyPanda. 2020. "Air Transportation: Airport Commercialization and Threats." April 3, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/air-transportation-airport-commercialization-and-threats/.

References

IvyPanda. (2020) 'Air Transportation: Airport Commercialization and Threats'. 3 April.

Related papers