- What is the difference between cartoon and animation?
Cartoons are two-dimensional arts, mainly in painting, print media, fresco, and glasses, whereas animations are three-dimensional art mainly in the form of series, films, and programs on televisions. Cartoons have an association with the children due to their moral teaching, whereas animations have an association with the adults due to the diverse themes and teachings. Cartoons have unrealistic scenarios, for example, singing frog, whereas animations have realistic scenarios; although exaggerated by the use of superstitions or other scenarios.
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- Why did Looney Tunes and Merry Melodies not strive to create a feature film?
Looney Tunes and Merry Melodies concentrated on the short comic animated films due to strong acceptance of their artwork during the golden age of American animation and fruitful market by Warner Brothers. Directors of Looney Tunes and Merry Melodies lacked support from the box office that would promote some of the animated feature films through the commercial advertisements. In the year 2000, Looney Tunes and Merry Melodies became part of the cartoon network, hence mandated to make a long series of comic films that became acceptable worldwide.
- Why were private snafu cartoons done in black and white?
Private snafu films were in black and white in order to enhance racial stereotypes. The cartoons glorified Americans on their capability to defeat and kill their enemies. The private snafu cartoons also aimed at giving uniformity and identity to the military, which would create an image of equality. The black and white design aimed at promoting multiculturalism, sexism, respect, and cultural conservation.
- What was the purpose of the cartoons made by Warner Brothers and Disney during World War II films and why were these short films banned or forgotten?
The short films aimed at educating and encouraging American soldiers on the battlefield. The short films got banned because they revealed the secrets and tactics of the United States army, which are not relevant to the public. The short films did not follow the army regulations. Private snafu films were uncensored and demonstrated the laziness of some military soldiers.
- Walt Disney films continually strived for realism in their animation throughout the 1940s and 50s while other studios such as UPA and Warner Brothers experimented with new forms of representation. Were these experiments in minimalist backgrounds and movements successful or did they distract from the story being told? Using UPA’s “Gerald McBoing Boing” and “A Tell-Tale Heart” as examples, please describe what the minimalist style was and its effect on the films.
The experiments practiced by united productions of America (UPA) and Warner Brothers with the new forms of representation were successful. The experiments involved the production of animated cartoon films with minimalist backgrounds and movements without obstructing the main story. According to Gerald McBoing Boing, the minimalist style used was two-dimensional animated films, the use of detailed art styles, sound checks, and gags. The effect of these styles was art diversification in the cartoon production industry.
The sounds of Gerald, speaking colleagues, and a puppy which burps release the boredom of animations practiced by Walt Disney films. Walt Disney animated cartoons used the model of “the illusions of life”, which the UPA and Warner Brothers did not follow in their artwork. UPA used graphics, complex design of characters, backgrounds, and layouts to enhance minimal background movements. According to “the tell-tale heart”, minimalist styles are evident through the storyline. The storyline uses animated characters. The characters use short sentences to create passion and humor. The house image in the film is symbolic, which means the criminal acts in society.
- Warner Brother’s animation was featured in a Museum of Modern Art exhibition in 1985, almost 50 years after Micky Mouse was valorized by the same institution. Why the delay in the recognition of Looney Tunes as modern art? What did the exhibition in 1985 signify about Warner Brother’s animation and the animators?
Looney Tunes borrowed some famous images from the Mickey Mouse exhibitions and perfected their imagery. The aim is to reflect the modern-day situation and living conditions, in which it took long for the museum of a modern art exhibition in giving credit. The delay was also caused by variations of Looney Tunes presentations in the theaters; hence, the storylines lacked originality. The stylistic features used in Looney Tunes lacked continuity as opposed to those found in Mickey Mouse films. Warner Brothers had abandoned the animation department but later brought it in the 1960s, hence the delay.
The exhibition in 1985 created the popularity of the cartoon films present in Warner Brothers. Professional animators and producers of Looney Tunes and Merry Melodies also got recognition from the exhibition. Warner Brothers got an opportunity of screening classic cartoon programs on the ABC television network. The exhibition made recognition of individual talents of the animators such as Freleng, Jones, Avery, and Clampett. The process of animation, the evolution of characters, originality of animated cartoons, video installation, background paintings, and drawings got recognition.
- The animation could (and still can) do what live-action could not. How does this fact affect the style and substance of animated films, particularly in the works created during World War II?
Animated films illustrate the admirable character traits and condemn the unproductive traits in a comic style. In relation to the animations created during World War II, such as private snafu, the cartoon animation exaggerated the laziness and carelessness of some military soldiers. The animators use voice records to create a comic and humorous effect that would release the tension of soldiers on the battlefield. The cartoons help in reuniting the soldiers and strengthening the coordination of soldiers on the battlefield.
On the other hand, the animations send a warning sign to the soldiers not to try scenes or activities that may result in personal injury or death. Animations also helped in killing the propaganda of World War II, and its effects on the United States soldiers. The soldiers would learn the do’s and do not’s while facing the enemy. The cartoons insisted on the importance of following orders, and the results of not following orders. Soldiers should withhold confidential information, and should not neglect self-protection. Talking too much on the battlefield to the non-soldiers and relying on rumors is unacceptable in the army.