To begin with, it is necessary to mention, that Asian countries were always subjected to European influence. They were either colonized or entailed into the economic system, imposed by European empires. The fact is that, this influence has shaped the national identity of the Asian countries. If in the 19th, the beginning of the 20th centuries the situation was under imperial control, the dissatisfaction of the citizens started growing. The Florentine scientist Ennio Di Nolfo emphasizes, that the First World War has changed the world situation completely because of several factors: the first and the most essential is the involvement of the masses into the political processes (revolutions and protests, nationalistic movements). The second is the development of the mass media, which promoted the rapid spread of the news, thus the masses could control and follow the events in the country, and over the world. The third factor is the change in the economic systems. The means of production changed completely. The movements of anti-colonialism were supported by the development of the ideas of Marxism and Leninism. Moreover, the instances of the attainment of independence by colonial states raised the consideration, that every country may be independent.
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Shaping of Asian Culture
The historical process offered many factors that shaped Asian cultural, political, and national identities. As it has been emphasized, the development of the revolutionary views, based on Marxism Leninism views, the anti-colonialism movements, and the wish to get rid of the European influence.
It is necessary to mention, that such factors as Maoism, Cultural Revolution Sun Yat Sen’s regime in China; Dien Bien Phu, Vietnamization and the American campaign in Vietnam; Mahatma Gandhi, British East India Company in India appeared to be the most essential factors that formed the current image of the international life. Originally, the appearing of such charismatic leaders as Mao Zedong, then Sun Yat Sen in China, Mahatma Gandhi in India, Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam only increased the intensiveness of the national unification against colonizers. The Dien Bien Phu battle showed that the national dissatisfaction might be the powerful force against the aggressors. In spite of the fact, that the weakened French troops reinforced in the mountain ring, the Vietnamese partisans managed to break the supply systems and break the resistance. This immense victory inspired the people of Vietnam, and made them believe, that the independence of their country would happen soon. The American intervention, that happened in 5 years after the Dien Bien Phu battle also did not discourage the population. While the citizens (mainly peasants) lead their ordinary life, the partisan troops (which mainly consisted of peasants) made the diversions in order to liberate their country of the American invaders. Finally, this campaign showed, that even superpower can not resist the partisan movement of the country, that has entered the twentieth century with the feudal structure. The national unity and strong deliberation to live freely.
Mao Zedong – the founder of the Communist party of China, managed to join the people of China, and take the course for the socialization of Chinese community. Originally, he defeated Chiang Kai-Shek with the help of the Soviet Union, and Chinese school-children sang the song “The Chinese and the Russians are brothers forever…”
The process of cultural revolution as the overcoming of the imperial lefts was like the mass psychosis, as everyone started implementing the principles of these overcoming instantly and faithfully in spite of the open idiocy of some principles. Luckily, the Cultural revolution ended in 1969, and the consequences of it were then eliminated by Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping.
As for the Indian instance of decolonization, it is necessary to mention, that India shown the most impressive result both in the process of liberation and in the results of this process. The main feature of the decolonization, and struggle for the independence was its nonviolent character. Actually, Mahatma Gandhi proclaimed, that non-violent way is the best for any country, but this principle was implemented only by the Indians. The British East India company, that initially was aimed to trade with India and other Asian countries, and then become the tool of essential political influence, lost its power, and initially, India was granted the dominion, and then total independence, and the participation in the Commonwealth.
In conclusion, it is necessary to mention, that the national features of the Asian peoples are rather unique. The fact is that, they are easy to unite for the common idea, and they will struggle for this idea jointly until the last drop of the blood, in distinction with the Europeans and Americans, who firstly estimate if this struggle is commercially beneficial. Such factors as the Cultural Revolution, Dien Bien Phu battle, non-violent struggle for the Indian independence proclaimed by Mahatma Gandhi shaped the national identity of these Asian peoples in the twentieth century.