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Australian Defence Doctrine Supporting Ukrainian Government Report


Video Briefing

Situation in the Ukraine

Crises in the Ukraine makes leading countries elaborate plans for possible military actions their governments may decide to use taking into account the objectives of the activities and the capabilities required to undertake the actions.

In short, revolution on Maidan in Kiev took place in November 2013 and was connected with the position of the Ukraine’s President Yanukovych who decided not to make “initially painful deal with the EU to bolster integration and trade”1 but preferred a loan from Russian Federation to survive current economic hardships. Consequently, after the protests turned into violent fighting of people and police that led to casualties, the President Yanukovych “fled to Russia, and a coalition government formed out of the opposition, agreeing to hold new elections on 25 May.”2 Next, in March 2013, the President of Russia, Putin, “signed a treaty formally annexing Crimea.”3

As a result, sanctions from the United Stated and the European Union followed, but all the actions and negotiations followed in 2014 and 2015 have not stopped military “unrest in east Ukraine”4 so far.

According to Foreign Minister Julie Bishop, Australia “condemns the breach of Ukraine’s sovereignty by the convoy of Russian trucks which entered Ukraine without permission.”5 Hence, Australia joined the US and the EU in sanctions against Russia, and Foreign Minister Julie Bishop stated that “Russian President Vladimir Putin should withdraw all support for the separatists and ask them to lay down their arms, so the conflict can be brought to an immediate end.”6

According to Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Russia “stands accused of supporting and enabling the subsequent violent destabilisation of Ukraine’s eastern regions by pro-Russian separatists, which began in April 2014.”7 Since the unrest in the East Ukraine has not stopped yet, Australian Government should be informed about the policy options involving the use of military force addressing the crises in the Ukraine.

Policy Options Involving the Use of Military Force

According to Australian Defence Doctrine Publication, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is “an instrument of national power”, and Australia pursues “bilateral, regional and multilateral strategies to advance its national interests, within a context of global responsibility.”8 Hence, ADF should provide the Australian government with policy options assisting the government in decision-making.

On the operational level of war, “operations could involve the ADF alone, or the ADF and other militaries in allied or coalition operations”, but the operational level always “serves to link the strategic and tactical levels.”9

First, use of ADF alone as a first option is required in case ADF needs to defend Australia from an aggressor. Although, due to unique geographic position Australia is “relatively secure from conventional attack”10, if there is a requirement “to conduct concurrent military operations over wide areas of the country and its sea approaches, ADF would be thinly stretched”, which can pose various challenges in military operations.11 Although the conflict in the Ukraine does not indicate possible aggression towards Australia, any military actions that put “global security, or Australia’s regional security environment, at risk”12 can require ADF to participate in the military operation alone.

Second, historically, the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain, formed coalitions in which ADF took part (Iraq, Kosovo). Therefore, one of the options for ADF to participate in the military operation conducted in the Ukraine is to join NATO military forces. Although Australia is not a member of NATO, it is one of “a range of countries beyond the Euro-Atlantic area – often referred to as “partners across the globe” – with which NATO is developing relations.”13

Moreover, in a “joint political declaration in June 2012, NATO and Australia signalled their commitment to strengthen cooperation”, and as a result “Individual Partnership and Cooperation Programme” between Australia and NATO was agreed in February 2013.14 For example, Australia made “a valuable and significant contribution to the NATO-led ISAF mission to stabilise Afghanistan, which was completed in December 2014.” 15 Moreover, Australia was one of the largest “non-NATO contributors of troops to ISA” with about “1100 Australian Defence Force personnel deployed” in the region.16 Hence, ADF has an experience participating in NATO’s military operations, and it is one of the possible options for the use of Australian military force in the Ukraine.

Furthermore, being one of the founding member of the United Nations Organisation, Australia participated “in the Middle East (UN Truce Supervision Organisation, UNTSO, since 1953) and in Cyprus (UN Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus, UNFICYP, since 1964)”, and currently Australian personnel “is deployed to the UN Mission in the Republic of South Sudan (UNMISS) and the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA).”17 Therefore, military force of Australia is used “to secure a legitimate objective” but keeping balance between military necessity and “the humanitarian interest of sparing civilians and civilian objects”, and not causing “excessive collateral damage or incidental injury” or “infliction of suffering, injury or destruction on adversary combatants that exceeds legitimate military requirements.”18

Moreover, LOAC exposition is “the jurisprudence of tribunals such as the International Military Tribunals.”19 Hence, having a long and productive history of conducting peace-making operations under the UN, it is one of the possible options for ADF to perform a military operation in the Ukraine combined with UN.

Objectives that the ADF Can Achieve

According to Australian Defence Doctrine, the primary purpose of the ADF in conducting the military action is “the physical, physiological, psychological or functional impact on the adversary as a result or consequence of own actions.”20

In terms of the objectives ADF can achieve by the use of military force supporting government troops in Ukraine conducted alone is provision of global security, which is aimed to defend Australian nation from any possible form of direct and indirect aggression.

Furthermore, ADF’s objective for military action in the Ukraine in coalition with NATO is in fighting for freedom. According to Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, on March 16, 2014 “an illegal snap referendum was conducted in Crimea, and on 21 March Russia purported to annexe Crimea.”21 Australia’s cooperation with NATO is based on the need “to develop common responses”, “to deal with instability”, “to confront global threats”, and “to maintain the free movement on which our economies depend on.”22

Hence, NATO’s objective to make “our world a better and safer place” is connected with the issues of globalisation since the conflict in Ukraine can “have consequences far beyond their borders.”23 According to Australian military doctrine, one of ADF’s goals is the protection of Australian international political and economic interests according to the NEBA.

Consequently, the objective ADF can achieve in the use of military force combined with UN is peacekeeping and peace-building. Australia signed Additional Protocols of 1977 to the Geneva Conventions. Thus, fundamental principles of the law of armed conflict (LOAC) abroad include: “military necessity”, “distinction”, “unnecessary suffering”, and “proportionality.”24 Therefore, membership in UN enables Australia to use military force in pursuing the security of ‘legitimate objectives’ in the crises in the Ukraine.

Hence, “the Charter does permit resort to armed conflict in two circumstances.”25 The circumstances include “maintenance or restoration of international peace and security” and “the inherent right of collective or individual self-defense.”26 Therefore, in case of further conflict escalation in the Ukraine, Australia will take part in the UN mission of peacekeeping in the region to achieve global peace and security.

Capabilities Required for the Use of Military Force

According to the Australian military doctrine, “Navy, Army and Air Force will contribute predominantly to the army strategy.”27 However, capabilities required for the use of military force should link to the objective ADF is pursuing policy outcomes.

In case of direct or indirect aggression threat resulting from escalation of the conflict in the Ukraine and use of ADF alone, military doctrine suggests “the establishment of an overt military presence to deter further adversary action, enforcement of sanctions or providing support for coercive diplomacy.”28 Thus navy, army, and air force should be presented at most in case of ADF alone military action.

According to military operational strategy and existing experience, a coalition with NATO involves “diverse joint or combined forces” and requires sufficient “information flow.”29 Namely, “observation by air and space systems can create persistent knowledge of an adversary’s force disposition and enable the actions required for our information and decision superiority.”30 Since the use of maritime units will require “several days to deploy to a prospective Joint Force Area of Operations, depending on distance and readiness,”31 capabilities of the air force and army in pursuing military operations in coalition with NATO ensure the best outcome in supporting government forces in the Ukraine.

Furthermore, ADF capabilities for peacekeeping operation combined with UN include providing military personnel to control “humanitarian and disaster-relief operations” and “assistance to civil authorities.”32 So far, Australia has provided “more than 65,000 personnel to more than 50 United Nations and other multilateral peace and security operations since 1947”, and “over 30,000 [of these] have participated in UN peace operations and more than 20,000 in UN-mandated operations.”33 Therefore, required by the UN number of military personnel depends on the conflict escalation and range of humanitarian operations in pursuing the peacekeeping mission in the region.

Written Briefing

Situation in the Ukraine

The conflict in the Ukraine escalated because “President [of the Ukraine] Viktor Yanukovych was ousted in a popular uprising lasting from November 2013 to February 2014.”34 The issue of the protests was “suspending preparations for the signing of the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement” and “pursuing closer ties with Russia” instead.35 Consequently, after the protests turned into violent fighting of people and police that led to casualties, the President Yanukovych escaped to Russia. Sanctions from the United Stated and the European Union followed annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014.

According to Foreign Minister Julie Bishop, “this shows a flagrant and reckless disregard for international norms and international law.”36 Hence, Australia joined the US and the EU in sanctions against Russia, and Foreign Minister Julie Bishop stated that “it is hypocritical of Russia to claim a humanitarian motive as it is directly responsible for the on-going instability and conflict in Eastern Ukraine.”37 Since the unrest in the East Ukraine has not stopped yet, Australian Government should be informed of the policy options involving the use of military force addressing the crises in the Ukraine.

Policy Options Involving the Use of Military Force

On the operational level of war, “operations could involve the ADF alone, or the ADF and other militaries in allied or coalition operations”, but the operational level always “serves to link the strategic and tactical levels.”38

First, use of ADF alone as a first option is required in case ADF needs to defend Australia from an aggressor in the event of an escalation of the conflict in the Ukraine.

Second, the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain formed coalitions in which ADF took part (Iraq, Kosovo). Therefore, one of the options for ADF to participate in the military operation conducted in the Ukraine is to join NATO military forces. In February 2013, there was agreed the “Individual Partnership and Cooperation Programme” between Australia and NATO.”39 Namely, Australia was an active participant of in “the NATO-led ISAF mission to stabilise Afghanistan, which was completed in December 2014.” 40 Hence, one of the possible options for the use of Australian military force in the Ukraine is in coalition with NATO.

Third, as a member of UN, military force of Australia is used “to secure a legitimate objective” but keeping balance between military necessity and “the humanitarian interest of sparing civilians and civilian objects”, and not causing “excessive collateral damage or incidental injury” or “infliction of suffering, injury or destruction on adversary combatants that exceeds legitimate military requirements.”41 Hence, another possible option for ADF to conduct a military operation in the Ukraine is combined with UN.

Objectives that the ADF Can Achieve

In terms of strategic level, all ADF operations performed alone or in coalition with other nations should comply “within an Australian whole-of-government approach that orchestrates military and non-military actions to meet national strategic objectives.”42 In fact, it requires coordination of all agencies involved in the operation. Thus, this strategy synchronises “the contribution of the components of national power, primarily the diplomatic, information, military and economic (DIME) strategies.”43 Besides, all ADF operations should be conducted within “the National Effects-Based Approach (NEBA)” that “facilitates the integration of the activities of all components of national power.”44 Hence, NEBA allows conducting operations so that they ensure the coordination between different security organisations and other agencies.

In terms of the objectives ADF can achieve by the use of military force supporting government forces in Ukraine conducted alone is global security to defend the Australian nation from any possible form of direct and indirect aggression.

Next, a coalition with NATO allows ADF to achieve an objective to make “our world a better and safer place” since the conflict in Ukraine can “have consequences far beyond their borders.”45

Finally, although the UN Carter requires “all nations to refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of other nations (Article 2 (4))”, “the Charter does permit resort to armed conflict in two circumstances.”46 The circumstances include “maintenance or restoration of international peace and security” and “the inherent right of collective or individual self-defense.”47 Thus, Australia can take part in the UN mission of peacekeeping in the region to achieve global peace and security.

Capabilities Required for the Use of Military Force

In case of direct or indirect aggression threat resulting from escalation of the conflict in the Ukraine and use of ADF alone, military doctrine suggests navy, army, and air force to be presented at most in case of ADF alone military action.

Nest, coalition with NATO involves use of Air Force because “observation by air and space systems can create persistent knowledge of an adversary’s force disposition and enable the actions required for our information and decision superiority.”48 Hence, capabilities of the air force and army in pursuing military operations in coalition with NATO ensure the best outcome in supporting government forces in the Ukraine.

Furthermore, ADF capabilities for peacekeeping under UN mission are connected providing military personnel to control “humanitarian and disaster-relief operations” and “assistance to civil authorities.”49 Thus, the UN should require the certain number of military personnel to fulfil humanitarian operations.

Bibliography

“Australian Air Publication 1000–D.” Royal Australian Air Force. 2008. Web.

.” Australian Government Department of Defence. 2012. Web.

NAVY. 2010. Web.

Bishop, Julie. “Ukraine.” Foreignminister.gov.au. Web.

.” Australian Government Department of Defence. 2014. Web.

Nato.int. 2012. Web.

Nato.int. Web.

Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Web.

“Ukraine Country Brief.” Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Web.

Yuhas, Alan. “The Guardian. Web.

Footnotes

  1. Alan Yuhas, “Ukraine Crisis: an Essential Guide to Everything That Has Happened So Far,” 3.
  2. Ibid., 5.
  3. Ibid., 9.
  4. Ibid., 17.
  5. Julie Bishop, “Ukraine,” 1.
  6. Ibid., 5.
  7. “Ukraine Country Brief,” 7.
  8. “Australian Defence Doctrine Publication–D (ADDP–D) – Foundations of Australian Military Doctrine,” 1.
  9. Ibid., 19.
  10. “Australian Air Publication 1000–D,” 33.
  11. Ibid., 34.
  12. Ibid., 36.
  13. “NATO Cooperation with Australia,” 2.
  14. Ibid., 3.
  15. Ibid., 5.
  16. Ibid.
  17. “Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding,” 2.
  18. Ibid.
  19. Ibid.
  20. Ibid., 61.
  21. “Ukraine Country Brief,” 6.
  22. “NATO and Australia – partners in security”, 15.
  23. Ibid., 18.
  24. “Australian Air Publication 1000–D,” 51.
  25. Australian Defence Doctrine Publication–D (ADDP–D) – Foundations of Australian Military Doctrine,” 49.
  26. Ibid., 50.
  27. “Australian Air Publication 1000–D,” 55.
  28. Ibid., 72.
  29. “Australian Maritime Doctrine,” 159.
  30. “Australian Air Publication 1000–D,” 72.
  31. “Australian Maritime Doctrine,” 180.
  32. “Australian Air Publication 1000–D,” 43.
  33. “Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding,” 1.
  34. “Ukraine Country Brief,” 5.
  35. Ibid.
  36. Julie Bishop, “Ukraine,” 2.
  37. Ibid., 4.
  38. “Australian Air Publication 1000–D,” 19.
  39. Ibid., 3.
  40. Ibid., 5.
  41. Ibid.
  42. “Australian Air Publication 1000–D,” 61.
  43. Ibid., 55.
  44. Ibid., 57.
  45. Ibid., 18.
  46. Australian Defence Doctrine Publication–D (ADDP–D) – Foundations of Australian Military Doctrine,” 49.
  47. Ibid., 50.
  48. “Australian Air Publication 1000–D,” 72.
  49. Ibid., 43.
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IvyPanda. (2020, September 12). Australian Defence Doctrine Supporting Ukrainian Government. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/australian-defence-doctrine-supporting-ukrainian-government/

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"Australian Defence Doctrine Supporting Ukrainian Government." IvyPanda, 12 Sept. 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/australian-defence-doctrine-supporting-ukrainian-government/.

1. IvyPanda. "Australian Defence Doctrine Supporting Ukrainian Government." September 12, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/australian-defence-doctrine-supporting-ukrainian-government/.


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IvyPanda. "Australian Defence Doctrine Supporting Ukrainian Government." September 12, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/australian-defence-doctrine-supporting-ukrainian-government/.

References

IvyPanda. 2020. "Australian Defence Doctrine Supporting Ukrainian Government." September 12, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/australian-defence-doctrine-supporting-ukrainian-government/.

References

IvyPanda. (2020) 'Australian Defence Doctrine Supporting Ukrainian Government'. 12 September.

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