The thing which determines the development of a personality and its skills is self-motivation. Having taken into account the fact that people adopt things and notions better when they are interested in them, researchers outlined the Self-Determination Theory. It is the approach to human’s motifs and personality which uses traditional empiric methods, combined with recognition of people using some inner sources to accomplish task better (Ryan & Deci, 2010, p. 68) In other words, it is the idea of trying to motivate a man to do something for his development. The difference from the traditional approach lies in the powers which motivation can give to a man and how it can influence his development. “Motivation concerns energy, direction, persistence and equifinality–all aspects of activation and intention” (Ryan & Deci, 2010, p. 69). This is why it is vital to use it in the process of study. There is a great difference between self-motivation and some external regulation, that is why a deeper study of motivation is needed.
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In these terms, intrinsic and extrinsic motivations can be called key points of this theory. Intrinsic motivation makes people do something on their desire, while extrinsic motivation is based on a human’s desire to get some benefit. In the educational process, this kind of motivation can be stimulated by different factors, so the person to start moving towards some concrete aim. This motivation should be internalized as it will guarantee a person’s more autonomous behaviour. Autonomy supportive teaching (AST) is based on this notion. The main idea of it is that enhancing autonomy in study promotes the development of intrinsic motivation among students and leads to better results. There are some main issues in this kind of teaching. First of all, the opportunity for some independent work should be provided as it will encourage a person to think and develop his approach to work. There also should exist some choice within rules.
Moreover, tasks and these rules should be explained and have some rational. Students should be shown their perspectives to see what they can achieve while practising some skills. For example, while developing skills in dribbling, pupils should be informed about the great importance of individual skills in modern football and the benefits it gives on examples of some famous football players.
MST takes this notion into account. It uses some similar methods to motivate students while interacting with the teacher in the process of study. In the first styles A and B, the role of a teacher is very big. In style A “he makes the maximum number of decisions” (Command. Style A, n.d., para. 1), while learners role is to follow his example. This style can be used while introducing some new material to auditory. However, in Style B the role of a teacher decreases, his part is “to make all subject matter” (Practice. Style B, n.d., para. 1), while students task is to practice everything privately, making their own decisions. It correlates with the idea of AST and can be used after the explanation of the material. For example, it can be used for practising skills in dribbling in teams. However, as the work on it is impossible without a team, a new reciprocal style is introduced in which students have to work in a partner relationship with their teammates to observe and evaluate each other (Reciprocal. Style C, n.d., para. 1). It gives more independence to pupils, letting them be in the role of a teacher by themselves.
This style differs from style D, where pupils have to work independently and check their skills according to the criteria given by a teacher (Self-Check. Style D, n.d., para. 1). Examination of their skills will show the level of their development. Of course, it will not be equal. However, the main idea of Inclusion style is that teacher should create tasks with different degree of difficulty where all pupils can take part, selecting the level they will be able to cope with (Inclusion. Style E., n.d., para. 1). It also correlates with AST, providing more autonomy for pupils and stimulating their ability to make decisions. Style F gives students even more autonomy, proposing them to “discover the answers” (Guided Discovery Style F, n.d., para. 1). This style stimulates the further development of students independence by giving students the ability to find their explanations for some facts. All following styles from G to K are also trying to develop students ability to think independently, relying on their forces. They also have the purpose of teaching students to think critically and develop their criteria for certain issues.
It can be concluded that AST and MST are similar, both trying to give more independence and autonomy to a student, developing his extrinsic motivation by giving him more abilities to think.
Command. Style A. (n.d.). Web.
Guided Discovery Style F. (n.d.). Web.
Inclusion. Style E. (n.d.). Web.
Practice. Style B. (n.d.). Web.
Ryan, R., & Deci, E. (2010). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist. 55,(1), 68-78. Web.
Reciprocal. Style C. (n.d.). Web.
Self-Check. Style D. (n.d.). Web.