The Introduction: Some Basic Assumptions Of The Universe Development
Generally, the Big Bang theory is recognized to be one of the ways to explain the appearance of the Universe. They say that our Universe expanded from hot structure. The structure existed more than thirteen billion years ago; so, they say that the Big Bang took place exactly at that time. The theory is based on the observations of cosmology. On the other hand, many astronomers rely on the so-called Hubble’s law. According to scientific data taken from the popular website Cornell.
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External galaxies are receding in such a way that their recessional speeds are proportional to the distance they are away from us. This observation is explained well by a uniform expansion of the universe. If the universe is expanding, it must have started out very small some time far in the past. It is this point which has been called the beginning of the universe or the Big Bang (1).
On the other hand, one is to keep in mind the CMB radiation, which also explains the way the Universe appeared. Thus, according to radiation investigations, some scientists say that billion years ago the Universe was hotter. For this reason, one may affirm that cosmic microwave background radiation represents the first photons. The CMB radiation was predicted in the late forties; however, the phenomenon was observed only in the mid of the sixties. Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson opened the CMB radiation.
Another important point, which is to be considered, is a large scale structure of the Universe. Thus, analyzing the structure, the scientists can study numerous aspects cosmology includes. Moreover, there is an opportunity to know more about the structure formation of our Universe.
The Thesis Statement
Generally, the Big Bang theory studies the process of cosmic evolution. The most important point is that the type of theory is recognized to be totally independent of other forms of evolution. The theory doesn’t disclose the origin of the Universe; it studies the way the Universe started.
The Body: The Most Widespread Attempts To Explain The Big Bang Theory
Björn Feuerbacher and Ryan Scranton say that No similar consensus has been reached on ideas about the ultimate origin of the universe. This remains an area of active research. That said, BBT is nevertheless about origins – the origin of matter, the origin of the elements, the origin of large scale structure, the origin of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, etc (1).
There are numerous misconceptions, which exist in persons’ mind about the BBT. The theory is not so easy to explain; however, the simplest affirmation is that when the Universe was expanded, it became cooler. The issue of the Universe expansion should be related to a space expansion. Anyway, there are many contradictions concerning the development of the Universe. Some scientists suppose that there was pre-existing volume, and the Universe had to reach the corresponding size. On the other hand, there are no facts, which could confirm the idea. Background knowledge about volume and geometry is at variance with the position. The BBT is also related to Einstein’s theory of General Relativity, and thus Björn Feuerbacher and Ryan Scranton state, “Energy determines the geometry and changes in the geometry of the universe, and, in turn, the geometry determines the movement of energy” (1). It is one more opinion, which is based on simple explanations. It is the so-called cosmological principle, which combines Einstein’s GR and BBT. Thus, there are two basic distributions of energy. The major assumptions are recognized to be homogeneous and isotropic distributions. The issues of matter, radiation and energy are rather important. One more important component of BBT is considered to be a dark energy. The basic parameters of BBT are the curvature of space, the scale factor, the Hubble Parameter, Deceleration Parameter, component densities, and Dark Energy Equation of State.
The basic problems with the Big Bang Theory are also to be taken into account. So, the central problems are the horizon problem, the flatness problem, and the monopole problem. According to the website. This general problem is called the horizon problem, because the inability to have received a signal from some distant source because of the finite speed of light is termed a horizon in cosmology. Thus, in the standard big bang theory we must simply assume the required level of uniformity (1). The main assumption of the flatness problem is that the development of the Universe on the basis of BBT is impossible due to its low geometrical curvature.
The conclusion: the most reliable theories on BBT
They say that there are only Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) which explain the issue of BBT. The theories are related to electromagnetic forces and their impact. The website UTK.edu explains, “Our current understanding of elementary particle physics indicates that such theories should produce very massive particles called magnetic monopoles, and that there should be many such monopoles in the Universe today” (1). Although the most important point is that the monopoles were not found.
Yuki D. Takahashi states, “The most conclusive evidence for the big bang arises from the observation of the cosmic background radiation” (1).
Cornell. edu. Cosmology and the Big Bang, 2011. Web.
Feuerbacher, B., Scranton, R. Evidence for Big Bang, 2006. Web.
Takahashi, Y. Big Bang: How Did the Universe Begin? 2000. Web.
UTK.edu. Problems with the Big Bang, 2011. Web.