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Such meteorological phenomena as hurricanes are quite relevant for the United States, and they are comparable to earthquakes in their destructible effects. Hurricanes can be attributed to emergency events with a moderate speed of propagation, which allows for the implementation of preventive measures. Nevertheless, the consequences of hurricane Sandy have shown that the strategies adopted do not allow for effective hurricane risk reduction (Haraguchi and Kim 134). The consequences of Hurricane Sandy make it possible to formulate a thesis that society and infrastructure need to be adapted to such natural disasters as frequent hurricanes and measures at the community level are necessary.
Hurricane Sandy covered the northeast coast of the United States, leaving behind a mark in the form of floods, fires, fallen trees, and millions of people left without electricity. In particular, this was the most massive blackout, which occurred as a result of a natural disaster. On the East Coast, about 8 million people were left without electricity (Haraguchi and Kim 134). The streets were littered and almost deserted, about 76 municipal shelters in New York had to accept thousands of people.
In addition to the fact that this spontaneous phenomenon caused great material damage, it also led to human casualties. One of the main solutions that would help address the current challenges is the greater inclusion of communities in risk reduction programs. The main questions to be researched are as follows:
- What measures are needed to ensure community preparedness?
- Which modern warning systems could be introduced as part of risk reduction programs?
- Are outreaches for individual preparedness effective in increasing community readiness?
Large-scale restoration in the region continued for many months, and the embankments were among the first to be restored to attract potential tourists. Research suggests that several months after the devastating Hurricane Sandy in New Jersey, almost 40 thousand people still could not return to their homes. In addition, nearby territories were also affected by the destruction of the power supply system (Haraguchi and Kim 133). The functional interdependence of areas was not included in the disaster resilience before Hurricane Sandy. In order to avoid such situations in the future, it is necessary to study how direct and indirect losses in critical infrastructure sectors can be avoided.
The effects of Hurricane Sandy brought to the forefront the importance of preventive and protective measures. Preventive measures and works should be carried out to avert significant damage before the hurricane, and they can cover a long period of time. In addition to strengthening the physical environment, community-based preventive programs need to be introduced (Chatterjee and Mozumder 984).
They should include work with individuals as part of risk reduction programs. Protective measures should promptly increase the size of the material and technical reserve necessary to eliminate the consequences of the hurricane and include the preparation of shelters and premises for securing the population (Burton 67). Moreover, protective strategies should imply advance preparation for rehabilitation measures. One of the main challenges of the future study will be the need to determine interconnectedness among infrastructure sectors and to evaluate the connection between the nature of risks.
Thus, I can conclude that the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy allows outlining several research goals of the future project. In particular, the study will intend to determine measures needed for effective hurricane risk reduction. It will provide guidelines on how to outreach communities for greater hurricane preparedness. In addition, it will discuss preventive and protective measures to be introduced to ensure interconnected infrastructures are resilient enough.
Burton, Christopher G. “A Validation of Metrics for Community Resilience to Natural Hazards and Disasters Using the Recovery from Hurricane Katrina as a Case Study.” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, vol. 105, no. 1, 2015, pp. 67-86.
Chatterjee, Chiradip, and Pallab Mozumder. “Understanding Household Preferences for Hurricane Risk Mitigation Information: Evidence from Survey Responses.” Risk Analysis, vol. 34, no. 6, 2014, pp. 984-996.
Haraguchi, Masahiko, and Soojun Kim. “Critical Infrastructure Interdependence in New York City during Hurricane Sandy.” International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 7, no. 2, 2016, pp. 133-143.