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Children Reading Skills: Parents and Babysitters Effect Research Paper


Introduction

In early years, the brain of a child is young and fresh; there is no much sound decision that the child can make at this tender age, but relies on the guidance they receive from their parents and caregivers. In most cases, a child learns through observing the outside world, what the parents are doing and the lifestyle of the parent influences the future and immediate decisions that the child will make.

“We are what we were socialized to be” this statement means that as much as we have some biological characteristics that define the way we look, take things and react to situations, the greatest percentage is influenced by the socialization process. Before a child gets to school-going age, parents and caregivers are its first educators, the kind of perception towards education that child develops is shaped at pre-school going age. Caretaker and parents give a child cognitive, physical, language and social education before the child gets to school and learn formal education. These early life lessons play a significant role in developing a child’s reading skills.

Aims and objectives

This research aims to determine the role of parents and child caregivers in developing a child’s reading style; from the data to be collected and analyzed, an advisory guide to parents will be developed to assist them to shape their child’s reading skills from an early age. To attain this aim, the researcher will be guided by the following objectives;

  1. Identify the relationship between parents and caregivers on the reading skills of a child.
  2. Identify special educational tools and needs that a child requires at an early age to develop an appropriate reading skill.
  3. To identify the role that a parent or caregiver has as an early teacher of a child.
  4. Identify and evaluate the current teaching tools that parents and caregivers use to educate their children at pre-school going age.
  5. Evaluate the impact of various tools used by parents and cares gives as they educate their children

Significance of the study

The study will give a guiding framework to parents especially in the modern world of career parents, on how to shape their children reading skills which will, in turn, shape their education life. It will also assist teachers in their informal education.

Literature review

This section discusses a wide review of early scholars to child development. It will focus on the role that parents and caregivers play in shaping their children reading skills.

It is appreciated that human beings develop a certain mode of behavior from factors arising from socialization right from childhood and these follow him to adulthood. Our values, beliefs, and morals are largely influenced by the society we live in, culture, and hereditary factors. Societies have different mechanisms that are geared at re-enforcing certain behavior deemed acceptable. Reading is a behavior like any other that can be developed and reinforced in a child right from childhood. It should not be left to teachers and tutors to develop the skill but parents and caretakers play a significant role in ensuring that their children develop these skills appropriately (Armbruster, Lehr $ Osborn, 2003).

National Reading Panel (2000) says, reading skills are not biological aspects transmitted from a parent to a child but are attribute which needs to be developed and nurtured. The report goes further and says that in pre-school going age, a parent or caregiver should have a joint book reading sections with their child. In these sections, the parent/caregiver should demonstrate text reading and picture interpolation. Pronunciation of certain letters mostly the alphabets should be taught. This is referred to as a Phonic analysis correction (Connelly, Johnston $ Thompson, 2001). When a child makes the right move in a pronunciation, then a reward system should be developed to motivate the child to try harder. One such reward system is clapping for the child and showing appreciation by massaging him/her.

Educational experts think that the reason why we have people who enjoy reading and others who do not like reading is subject to the way one was socialized at his/her early ages. Those people whose parents and baby sitters read books for them at pre-school going age have better reading skills. They are enthusiastic and perform better in school. By encouraging children to read at home before they attend their first formal training will assist a child to develop an attitude that transforms reading from a basic skill to a pleasurable activity (Cunningham, C et al. 2000).

At an early, a child is curious to learn and explain the new things that he/she finds; when doing this they develop certain behavior to learning. They will be seen staring at photos, magazines and the environment around them. The role of parents and baby sitters is to nature this behavior and ensure that the child develops friendship with books. In this curiosity, a parent or a caregiver should interfere, motivate and make fun of the situation that a child is trying to understand (Reiss, 1989).

Communication skills are developed at an early age; this is done through the eye to eye contact with a child. This means a lot to the child as it learns how to express itself using the eyes, later in life the child will take up the attribute of expressing itself in life. To have a good reading skill, a child should be able to communicate effectively; this will assist him to make sense of what he has read and express his opinion.

A child learns the language that its parent or caretaker uses to address her/him; if for instance the same language will be used in school, the child is more likely to have an easy life right from kindergarten through its life. At this early stage, its self-esteem will develop as he will believe that reading is a source of joy and school an extension of home life. If on the other hand, the language that a child at an early age is socialized with is not the same as the one used in early schools, then the child is more likely to have difficulties coping with new school life education (Crozier, 1997).

During an early age development, a child literacy level and behavioral regulation are shaped by a parent. The way a child is going to translate from home life to school life is an influence on how he has been socialized. A person character is a component of his/her biological and socialization aspects. Personality can is defined as those relatively stable and enduring aspects of an individual that distinguish them from other people, making them unique, but which if time permits makes comparison among individuals. It is also used to refer to a long-lasting pattern of behavior that an individual portrays.

Personality answers the following question or explains the following situations; why are some people terrified to talk in the public when others enjoy it? why do some people involve in dangerous activities when others fear such activities? Why do people react differently when faced by one condition or situation? The answer to all the above questions is the character that someone has that is different from the others. At an early age, the personality of a child should be shaped to perceive education as an adventure; it is the work of parents and caretakers. The kind of attitude that will be developed on a child towards reading will influence how it will embrace reading in early and later stages in life (Cockerill, Sheridan $ Sharma, 2007).

Dwyer and Neuman, 2008, observe that there is no early age to start reading for/ with a child, they say that a child as young as six months can respond to readings. The kind of books and materials that parents and caretakers read to their children shape the development of vocabularies and the attitude that they will have on reading. This is in school-going age and early in life. Children well-read develop a good literature orientation. From the age of six months, a parent should start investing in books and give then to a child as presents. At this stage, the child can handle a book. The child at this age and beyond can handle toys and board, he/she should be shown on how to handle a book and not throw it as other toys; when this happens it will appreciate that books have a better value than toys an aspect that will be installed into the child system until adulthood.

Research Methodology

To collect data, the researcher will use both quantitative and qualitative research methods. This is because the kinds of data that will be collected will be both theoretical and numerical data. Qualitative method involves an ally of interpretive techniques for data collection and data analysis. Under this method, the researcher will use focus groups and interview parents of selected sample students. To select the sample student the researcher will use Multi-stage Cluster Sampling.

Deductive reasoning will also be employed. This is a systematic method of obtaining knowledge where one proceeds from a general point of view to a specific statement. The research starts from the known and explains the unknown. It provides for a means of testing the validity of a conclusion by having major premises and minor premises. A major premise is where there exists a previously established relationship and minor premises are the particular case under research for conclusion (Creswell, 1998).

Interviews

Interviews will be conducted on teachers and parents of the sample student population. This will involve face to face discussion guided by semi-structured questionnaires. In cases where a parent or teacher cannot be reached, the researcher will call them. Data collected on a certain student from a parent and the child’s teacher will be merged for a deeper understanding. (See appendix 1 and 2 for sample questionnaires for parent and teacher respectively)

Focus groups

Groups of parents will be developed and facilitated to discuss their child’s performance in school; the leader will be trained to guide discussions to the benefit of the study. For instance, the group may be allowed to talk in their vernacular; this will relax the mood and encourage more information. As people are discussing it is like they are solving their problems and thus more information is derived from them.

Secondary data

There are numerous researches done in this area; to get an in-depth analysis of the situation at hand secondary data will be collected. A wide review will give a good background of the situation and assist in focusing the researcher.

The rationale for choosing these methods

The researcher will have a wide knowledge of the research topic and develop a wide scope when he reviews secondary data on related topics. Using interviews as a data collection method will assist open a door for insight discussion with the sampled population and develop rich primary data for better analysis. Focus groups, on the other hand, will assist the research get first-hand data from discussion with the groups as they review their past successes as far as bringing up children is concerned. When a well-relaxed mode and environment are realized, the groups can give very reliable information as they compare “notes” (Burns, 2000).

Data Analysis or Interpretation

To analysis data collected most effectively, the researcher will use a thematic analysis procedure. Using this method the researcher will compare and contrast data from homogenous people and continue with the process until he is confident that no new issues emerge. After developing a general idea from the data, the next step is to fully analyze the data following the following steps;

Data Understanding

This will involve going through the data collected again and getting the general flow of the data. Various tools used in early development will be understood and the flow of data grasped.

Taking a focus

At this stage with the flow of data in mind, the researcher will review the aim of the research and choose the data that is consistent with the research aim and objectives. Irrelevant data and extreme ends data will be set aside.

Coding the data

At this stage data with the same theme and which have the same meaning are categorized together. Reading and re-reading of data is crucial at this stage to get an in-depth understanding of the data.

Identify connections and patterns in codes

At this point, critical thinking will be used to derive the meaning of the data and pattern followed by data. A relationship of data will be derived. The wide secondary data collected for an insight understanding of child development will assist in making an informed conclusion. After the data has been coded and relationships developed, a conclusion which involves writing a guide on measures that a parent should take to develop an appropriate reading skills in his/her child will be developed (Balnaves $ Caputi, 2002).

Conclusion/recommendations

Reading skills are not biological aspects in human beings; they are attained, nurtured and developed. Parents and baby sitters are the first teachers of a child and thus they should ensure that they develop these skills. For six months, a child has a good listening and visual skills and thus a parent/baby sitter should starting reading to the child. As the child develops, books should be introduced in their life; by so doing a child will develop good reading skills both in school and in life. There is a need to offer a guide to parents on how to nurture and develop their child’s reading skills; this is the aim of this research.

References

Armbruster, B., Lehr, F.,& Osborn, J. (2003). A child becomes a reader: Birth through preschool. Washington, DC: National Institute for Literacy.

Balnaves, M., Caputi, P. (2002). Introduction To Quantitative Research Methods: An Investigative Approach. London: Sage.

Burns, R.B. (2000). Introduction to Research Methods. London: Sage.

Creswell, J. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Cockerill, H., Sheridan, M., & Sharma, A.(2007). From birth to five years: children’s developmental progress, 3rd edition. London: Routledge.

Connelly, V., Johnston, R.,& Thompson, G. B. (2001). The effect of phonics instruction on the reading comprehension of beginning readers. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 14, 423-451.

Crozier, W. R. (1997). Individual learners. Personality differences in education. London: Routledge.

Cunningham, C. (2000). Triministry study: Correlates of school-based parenting course utilization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 928-933.

Dwyer, J., & Neuman, S. (2008). Selecting Books for Children Birth Through Four: A Developmental Approach. Early Childhood Education Journal, 35(6), 489-494.

National Reading Panel. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel: Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups. Rockville, MD: NICHD Clearinghouse.

Reiss, D. (1989). The practicing and representing family. In Sameroff, A. J. Emde, R. Relationship disturbances in early childhood. (pp. 191-220). New York: Basic Books.

Appendixes

Appendix 1

A Sample guiding questions to teachers; (this is not a questionnaire to be given to my sample but it will be guiding questions)

Which grade is student ……………………….. (The researcher will give students code)

Which position was he able to attain ………… (Last three terms results will be recorded)

Can the student read and understand by its own……………………………………………

If no

Which are the challenges that have been indentified?………………………………………………

Does the child finish its homework in time? ………………………………………………….

Can the student read in front of the class ……………………………………………………

Which subjects are strongest to the child ……………………………………………………

How well is the students work organized?……………………………………………………………….

How clean is the child as far as books is concerned? ……………………………………..

(A range will be given)

Teachers views on the child performance

Appendix 2

A sample guiding questions to parents and baby sitters; (this is not a questionnaire to be given to my sample but it will be guiding questions)

Which grade is student ……………………….. (The researcher will give students code)

At what time does the student take his homework? …………………………………………

Is he assisted? ………………………………………………………………………………….

If yes how ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Does the child need to be reminded that there is a home work? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

What does the child prefer; playing first then doing homework or the opposite? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..

At what time was the first book read to the child? …………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Who was involved?……………………………………………………………………………………………..

When was the child’s first book bought? ……………………………………………………..

If the parent has older kids; was the toddler allowed to sit on the same reading table with other children before he went to school? ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Which books are of interest to the child? …………………………………………………….

Was the early language taught to the child the same as the one used in school?…………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Do parents read with the child? …………………………………………………………………

In early days was the child anxious and curious to go to school? …………………………………………………………………………………………………….

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IvyPanda. (2020, July 22). Children Reading Skills: Parents and Babysitters Effect. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/children-reading-skills-parents-and-babysitters-effect/

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"Children Reading Skills: Parents and Babysitters Effect." IvyPanda, 22 July 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/children-reading-skills-parents-and-babysitters-effect/.

1. IvyPanda. "Children Reading Skills: Parents and Babysitters Effect." July 22, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/children-reading-skills-parents-and-babysitters-effect/.


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IvyPanda. "Children Reading Skills: Parents and Babysitters Effect." July 22, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/children-reading-skills-parents-and-babysitters-effect/.

References

IvyPanda. 2020. "Children Reading Skills: Parents and Babysitters Effect." July 22, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/children-reading-skills-parents-and-babysitters-effect/.

References

IvyPanda. (2020) 'Children Reading Skills: Parents and Babysitters Effect'. 22 July.

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