We will write a custom Essay on Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder specifically for you
301 certified writers online
The research problem that the article addresses is the effects of disorder features and medication on the levels of self-worth in children having ADHD. The research question of the present study is concerned with the extent to which self-esteem depends on the use of medication and the course of the disease. The researchers also try to define the factors that influence the self-esteem of children with ADHD. The purpose of the present research is to understand the correlation between the self-esteem of children with ADHD and the use of medication (or specific treatment) and the disorder’s characteristics.
The major independent variable in the study is self-esteem while the dependent variables are disorder characteristics and medical use. The problem warrants research because there are few conceptual models that explain self-esteem in children suffering from ADHD. The theory underlying the relationships between the variables is that treatment may facilitate improved self-esteem in children with ADHD. The relationship linking medical use and self-esteem suggests a complex interplay of social, demographic and treatment factors. Some scholars argue that children who are treated for ADHD have a positive transformation in feelings associated with self-esteem (Zimmerman et al., 1997). The hypothesis of the study is that children with more symptoms, comorbid conditions, and greater functional impairment are more likely to have lower self-esteem.
Review of the Literature
The literature review provides a foundation as to what is currently known about the research problem. Bussing et al. (2000) report about the surveys and some research implemented on the matter. In the first place, Bussing et al. (2000) provides certain information about self-esteem in children with ADHD. Apart from this, the researchers also report that it is found that development of self-esteem of children with ADHD follows general rules, as all children, irrespective of their health conditions, are influenced by certain factors which form their self-esteem. Bussing et al. (2000) reveal these factors, which is very important for the present research as this information can help to understand principles of self-esteem formation in children with ADHD. More so, Bussing et al. (2000) reveal the major findings in the field.
Thus, the researchers point out that there is correlation between the treatment and self-esteem development. Thus, long-term treatment helps children with ADHD to develop higher self-esteem, whereas children who do not obtain treatment have lower self-esteem. This information is very important for the present research as Bussing et al. (2000) focus on the influence of the use of medication on self-esteem of children with ADHD. Thus, the researchers understand that treatment plays a positive role in self-esteem formation, and it is important to work out the most effective strategies to treat children with ADHD. The literature review provided has helped me to understand the relevance of the present research. Thus, I have found out that it is already known that treatment is beneficial for the development of self-esteem in children with ADHD.
Thus, I have understood that Bussing et al. (2000) focuses on another facet of the problem. Now I understand that it is important to understand what kind of treatment can be the most effective and how characteristics of the disorder can influence the development of self-esteem in children with ADHD. Basically, these are major questions to be answered so far.
Of course, there are certain limitations to the studies cited. One of such limitations is that they were very general due to their use of clinic-based study populations and their underrepresentation of ethnic minority children. It is also important to note that the studies cited do not provide evaluation of the treatment. Thus, it is rather unclear whether it is possible to generalize the fact that the treatment obtained by the children with ADHD influenced the children’s self-esteem. There are chances that the positive affect of the treatment depended on its effectiveness.
Perhaps, less effective treatment will not positively affect self-esteem of children with ADHD. Besides, according to the studies cited children with ADHD of different ages differently reacted to the treatment. However, the reasons for that were not identified. Nevertheless, the literature is relevant to the hypothesis of the study as it provides the necessary background information to conduct the research. The information provided enables the researchers to formulate their hypothesis: children with more symptoms, comorbid conditions, and greater functional impairment are more likely to have lower self-esteem. Thus, the present study fills in one of the gaps which exist in the field.
The present study can be identified as cross-sectional survey. Admittedly, the researchers focused on a large group of children. The researchers analyzed behavior and attitudes of both children with ADHD and children without this disorder. Thus, the sampling method enables the researchers to compare self-esteem of both children with ADHD and children without the disorder. Besides, the number of participants verifies that the data obtained can be generalized and can be regarded as accurate.
The study uses a number of research methods. Data were collected through both telephone and face-to-face interviews. It is important to note that parents also completed specific questionnaires and after that they were invited to face-to-face interviews. The study sample entailed a student population of 722. More than two thirds (499) of the parents took part in the screening interview. The screening process was based on ASQ and ADDES. Self-esteem ratings scores were measured using the Piers-I-Jarris. However, teacher ratings were available for only 88 children. This is because only two thirds of the school principals allowed the teachers at their schools to complete teacher questions.
This sampling method is appropriate for the research question because it entails all stakeholders involved in child development. It is also important to point out that the data were carefully analyzed using various methods. Thus, the researchers come to precise conclusions which are well-grounded. The conclusions made by the researchers can be regarded as accurate and precise. The researchers do provide an in-depth analysis of a particular facet of the problem which has been considered throughout decades. The authors describe how they ensured the rights of the participants of the study. Bussing et al. (2000) note that the design of the study and the procedures were approved by the necessary authorities.
Therefore, this information verifies that the rights of the participant were secured. Furthermore, even though the authors do not mention precise strategies to secure the participant’s rights, it is possible to assume how the researchers secured these rights. Apparently, personal information (for instance, names, addresses, etc.) was not revealed by the researchers. Thus, the data were properly codified, which can be regarded as one of the techniques to secure the rights of the participants of the present study.
Bussing, R., Zima, B.T. & Perwien A.R. (2000). Self-esteem in special education children with ADHD: Relationship to disorder characteristics and medication use. JAACAP, 39(10), 1260-1269.
Zimmerman, M.A., Copeland, L.A., Shope, J.T. & Dielman, T.E. (1997). A longitudinal study of the self-esteem: Implications for adolescent development. Journal of Youth Adolescence, 26(5), 117-141.