Since the early 1980s, after the death of Mao Tse-tung, a prominent politician who played a major role in formulating Chinese foreign policies of 1949-1976, China has managed to pursue a foreign policy that is highly independent. This means that the country formally rejected close relationship with other states. Safeguarding national security was the main objective of Chinese foreign policy when Mao Tse-tung was in power.
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He wanted to guarantee the territorial integrity of China, win state sovereignty and enhance an international status. This means that security and survival orientation were the main objectives of the foreign policy when Mao Tse-tung was still alive. During 1949, one of the main Chinese international strategies was to use its national power to promote national interest (Sutter 2009).
In the 1950s, Chinese policies were divided between the United States and the Soviet Union to learn one side strategy. In the 1960s, Double Anti policy had been formulated, and later on, the one united front strategy was implemented in the 1970s.
After the death of Mao Tse-tung, economic reforms were made under Deng Xiaoping who reversed all his policies, focusing more on transitioning Chinese market economy. Xiaoping’s main goal was economic modernization which made China actively participate in several world affairs. A new policy was formulated which allowed China to open up to outside world and take part in world trade and politics.
This exemplary policy greatly expanded economic relations of China with foreign nations. Being a part of independent foreign policy of peace has enabled Beijing to become a part of numerous international organizations (Robinson 1995). China has also been able to maintain diplomatic relations with many nations as far as 157 nations.
This was recorded in 2007 and recognized as a huge number as compared to that of 1949 when the country was under Mao Tse-tung’s rule. Today, China is willing to build relationships with different social system governments on peaceful coexistence basis and mutual respect. China is also relating more with developed countries, such as European states and Japan, which has brought tremendous economic success for the nation.
There are limits that are used to identify the most powerful Chinese leaders in the foreign policy. These include that the leader should be focused on achieving Chinese national interests and not his own. Informal channels that are based on institutional allegiance and personal relationships should be also considered. The leader makes decisions based on deep-rooted sense of nationalism, foreign education and inferiority (Sutter 2009).
The leader’s motives should also take into account economic modernization since China is actively involved in world affairs. The leader does not seek for additional leverage but acts solely without influencing public opinion, and takes into consideration omnidirectional channels of influence. The leader’s actions should never contradict Chinese diplomacy in any way.
There are several foreign policy theories in China that focus on its leaders. One example is an international relation theory which allows the country to open up to outside world and participate in world affairs. The Chinese leaders should purse peaceful rise policy that will create a productive international environment. Having a peaceful policy in China will also enable the country to be a secure nation with good leaders to govern it.
In conclusion, today, China is a politically and economically stable nation as a result of several reforms that have been made in Chinese foreign policy which enabled the country to enter the world market. Beijing continues implementing the reforms, thus the country has open-door policy which has enabled it to become successful both economically and politically.
Robinson, T. (1995). Chinese foreign policy: Theory and practice (Studies on contemporary China). New York: Clarendon Press.
Sutter, R. (2009). Chinese foreign relations – Power and policy since the Cold War. New York: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.