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This Journal article discusses the 2007 Assessment Report on Climate Change. The article identifies water stress, natural disasters, land use, and food security as key areas of conflict in climatic maintenance and environmental protection. Since these fields pose risks to human survival on earth, the article describes the systems, which are vulnerable to such risks. The outlined systems include agriculture, human health, settlements, economy, and water resources.
In details, the article analyzes the relationships between the impacts of climatic stress factors and the anticipated responses. It further describes the effects of climatic change to the poor countries such as North African nations in which it establishes that climate change adds more stress to the development of these already struggling nations. Climatic change results into water related-risks, natural disasters, food insecurity, and environmental migration.
The article details the security risks associated with climatic changes. There exists a casual link between conflict and climate changes. The article attributes the Darfur-Sudan conflicts to changes in land use, which climatic change has induced in the North African region. Other climate-induced conflicts discussed include Peru’s city water conflicts and Middle East water conflicts among other pertinent conflicts across the world.
Although these conflicts exist, the article concludes that climate change presents great potential for cooperation in the third world countries. In my essay on ‘Global Warming’, I shall use this article to discuss the effects of climate change to developing countries. Based on the discussion on the relationship between climatic change and societal impacts, I shall use the article to propose possible solutions to global warming.
Global Warming, Equity and Future Generations
Attfield explores various approaches and principles to addressing the climate change in this informative article. The article argues in favour of ‘quota emission’ approach whereby, the international policy controls emission for various populations in the world. Based on the anthropogenic theory of global warming, the author argues that the approach affects the equality among the people and the future generations.
The article also examines criticisms towards the approach from environmental scholars and philosophers such as Peter Singer. In support of the argument, the author discusses the benefits associated with the quota approach. Such benefits include equality in emissions of the greenhouse gases, equality in satisfaction of human needs, equality in development across all the populations in the world, maintenance of low greenhouse emissions and achievement of a sustainable system of generation.
The article details the effect of greenhouse to the equality in the world. However, the article supports some of the arguments against the approach; for instance, according to critics, this approach is likely to encourage policies of overpopulation or distorted information on census. Moreover, the approach does not include policies for economic growth in the developing countries. In fact, the author asserts that the approach will push these countries to trade much of their greenhouse emissions to minimum proportions.
As a result, these countries will not sufficiently provide needs for their people. The article further proposes the consideration of the ecological factors in formulation of policies associated with this approach. In conclusion, the article describes alternative approaches to global warming including their benefits and limitations. In my essay, I shall use this article to provide possible solutions to global warming. The article will also be useful in discussing the effects of global warming.
Solutions to Global Warming
The article discusses the study of Lenton and Vaughn on solutions to global warming crisis. In their study, Lenton and Vaughn argue that, altering the earth is the last solution to climatic changes, which people should adopt. The study models various techniques for alteration of the climate in a bid to identify the best technique. The study also focuses on geoengineering techniques for curbing the effects of climatic change.
The article discusses the geoengineering techniques in two categories: short wave and long wave techniques. The author refers to short wave techniques as the “albedo management strategies.” The purpose of these strategies is to increase the reflectivity of the earth which involves painting roofs with reflective colours and mega scale projects involving space mirrors. The article describes the long wave strategies as “the carbon management” since they focus on reduction of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Projects in this category include increasing the carbon quantity that oceans absorb; reforestation, and carbon dioxide filtration. Out of the Lenton and Vaughn work, the article identifies the most viable and practical strategies viz. stratospheric injection and space shields.
Although massive projects on reflective surfaces in deserts may reduce global warming, the article details that it may not stop it completely. The article concludes by justifying Lenton and Vaughn’s study as the last-resort for Global Warming in the 21st century. I shall use this essay to discuss geoengineering as a solution to global warming. The article will also be useful in discussion of the global warming effects.
Role of Community to Lessen the Rate of Global Warming
Ludang provides a brief review on global warming, remedies and the community role in providing solutions for global warming. Human activities on earth play a major role in emission of carbon dioxide which happens to be the greatest greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. As an introduction, the article describes the background of the development of the concept of global warming. It then outlines the risks associated with global warming to the ecosystem.
On its brief review of the problem, the article discusses the relationship between human activities and climatic change. The article also details the scientific steps, which human beings should adopt to reduce the rate of global warming. Since global warming poses serious threats to human existence, the article discusses the role of the community in causing and preventing global warming.
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The review proposes that people should change their methods of exploiting natural resources; that is, from self-interest and self-satisfying methods to environment-friendly techniques. The article briefly discusses particular activities through which human beings exploit natural resources resulting into climate change and global warming. Agriculture and mining are some of the activities through which human beings exploit natural resources.
The article warns that if people do not carry out these activities carefully, they can lead into adverse climatic changes, which in turn results into global warming. The article concludes that lessening global warming calls for efforts from all the people including policy makers, scientists, business people and the commoners.
I shall use this article to discuss causes of global warming. The article also provides the potential community solutions to global warming. I shall also use the article to discuss the effects of global warming to the survival of human beings and the resilience of biodiversity.
Scheffran, Jurgen, and Battaglini, Antonella. “Climate and Conflicts: The Security Risks of Global Warming.” Regional Environmental Change 11.1 (2011): 27-39. Print.
Attfield, Robin. “Global Warming, Equity and Future Generations.” Research in Human Ecology 17.2 (2010): 102-107. Print.
Cascio, Jamais. “Environment: Last Resort Solutions to Global Warming; Geoengineering the Planet to Stave off Disaster.” The Futurist, June 2009.
Ludang, Yetrie. “A Brief Review on the Role of Community to Lessen the Rate of Global Warming.” Regional Environmental Change 2.5 (2010): 194-199. Print.