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Climate Change Vulnerability in Scotland Research Paper

General geographic information

Scotland is found in Europe, and it is a part of the United Kingdom. It borders England to the south, while it borders some major water bodies on its other sides (Turnock, 2005). The water bodies include Atlantic Ocean and North Sea to the east and south-west respectively.

The nation has interesting geographical features that are the main sites of tourist attractions. The Highland Boundary is a major geographical site that has many islands and highlands. Furthermore, the fascinating feature has the oldest rocks in the country (Turnock, 2005). Throughout Scotland, there are numerous deposits of Old Red Sandstones that are the main sources of fossils. Paleozoic formations are found in the Central Lowlands that are important for agriculture (Turnock, 2005).

In the southern part of the nation, the Southern Uplands contains hills that are about 200 kilometers long, and interspersed with valleys (De Blij, Muller, Burt & Mason, 2013). The Scottish economy is supported by agriculture, which contributes to a large number of the nation’s exports. It is important to note that water is abundant is the country due to its excellent geographical location and features. Abundant water is critical in supporting sustainable agriculture (De Blij et al., 2013).

Current climate

Based on the Koppen classification system, the climate of Scotland can be termed as being Cfb Climate, which implies that it has relatively warm temperatures and high humidity. The warmest months are typified by temperatures of more than 220C, but the colder months can be characterised by ice formations.

Weather patterns are predictable throughout the year. Vegetation cover is evident in most parts of the nation, but it disappears to some extent during periods of extremely cold temperatures. Precipitation is also rampant during cold and warm months. It is critical to underscore that the quality of soils is good for agricultural practices. However, if soil is overused, then farmers are advised to adopt crop rotation and/or apply fertilisers (Center for Global Development, 2014).

Predicted threats with regard to climate modelling

Climate modelling is an important approach across the world because it enables various specialists, such as geologists, to predict climate outcomes on both long-term and long-term trends. Extreme weather conditions are threats to the economy of the nation. It is anticipated that the nation can experience harsh weather conditions at any time during the year. Although the soils are fertile, lack of adequate rains may result in prolonged droughts in the future that may negatively impact farming activities and a number of industries.

Due to the rugged terrain of the highlands and rift valley regions, the nation may experience threats in the form of soil erosion. However, flooding due to excess rain may typify the lowlands, which are poorly drained (Turnock, 2005). In relation to the current climate modelling, Scotland may have cases of desertification in some regions that would be subjected to harsh climate conditions and unfavorable human activities, such as deforestation and release of excess carbon dioxide, among others.

Famine may be witnessed in the future if measures to mitigate the effects of climate changes are not adopted. Biodiversity and habitat loss would happen due to unforeseeable weather changes and human activities that destroy natural habitats. Significant climate variations may lead to high rates of prevalence of infectious diseases. Landslides may be influenced to occur in the nation due to human events and/or uncontrollable natural events.

During dry seasons, wildfires that may destroy wildlife may be experienced (Turnock, 2005). Although malaria has been cleared in the country, it might reoccur if climate changes lead to warmer temperatures and vegetation that support breeding of mosquitoes. Finally, it is important to note that significant climate variations may negatively impact framing activities, forestry, fisheries, hydro energy, transportation, and tourism sectors, among others (Center for Global Development, 2014).

Reasons for the region’s vulnerability

Scotland is already dealing with some environmental issues that could impact it negatively. For example, it is surprising that about eighty-two percent of the country’s population lives on only six percent of its land. Thus, some areas, such as Edinburgh and Glasgow, are densely populated, implying that they are exposed to the risks id flooding and storms.

In addition, some communities live in rural areas that are vulnerable to disruptions of transport networks. Although the climate is changing, people are adapting so that they may continue living in the nation. The nation is not struggling economically, and it has the potential to mitigate a number of threats. However, some threats cannot be prevented, for example, rapid weather changes (DARA Climate Vulnerablity Monitor, 2014).

Solutions to mitigate the negative impacts of climate

The Scottish government has adopted some plans to mitigate the impacts of climate variability. The government has implemented suggestions to melt the arctic ice sheet, implying that more trade opportunities will be realised. Citizens have been discouraged from engaging in activities that could culminate in climate changes. Various industries have been advised not to release harmful gases that may harm the ozone layer.

The mitigation approaches, among others, involve the use of new technology (DARA Climate Vulnerablity Monitor, 2014). It is crucial to note that they mostly focus on preparedness and mitigation. In addition, they are economically focused. I think the current plans can be effective in relation to making the nation safe from the negative impacts of climate changes.

My adaptation plan would involve the utilisation of regular evaluations and modelling strategies to assess the situation and recommend the most effective methods. However, it would be critical for strategies to focus more on preparedness, which can be cheaper to implement than mitigation.


Center for Global Development. (2014). Mapping the impacts of climate change.

DARA Climate Vulnerablity Monitor. (2014). .

De Blij, H. J., Muller, P. O., Burt, J. M., & Mason, J. A., (2013). Physical geography: The global environment, (4th Ed.). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.

Turnock, D. (2005). The historical geography of Scotland since 1707: geographical aspects of modernisation (Vol. 2). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

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IvyPanda. 2020. "Climate Change Vulnerability in Scotland." April 2, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/climate-change-vulnerability-in-scotland/.


IvyPanda. (2020) 'Climate Change Vulnerability in Scotland'. 2 April.

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