Contraception is methods and devices and to control pregnancy. They also might include medicines and methods which can prevent the fertilization process. Historically they have been used in every culture and civilization. Herbs were used, which were believed to prevent pregnancy in many ancient civilizations. Contraception has been a controversial issue that has been studied on the basis of religion and ethical context (Speroff, p. 202).
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The most common method of contraception is to use condoms. It acts as a barrier preventing the sperm from moving into the vagina. Besides condoms, latex and sheaths are also used over the penis. Condoms can also be worn by females. Such kind of condom has rings on both ends. One end holds the outside, and the other stays inside the vagina. Other devices are placed in the vagina’s cervix region. They include sponges, caps, and shields (Speroff, p. 302).
Several medications are available for contraceptives to use. They include estrogens, progestin, the oral contraceptive pill, and contraceptive vaginal ring. Progestin is used in many methods. They can be pills and injections. Selective estrogen receptor modulator is another method for birth control. It prevents the formation of a zygote.
Intrauterine devices are used inside the uterus. Some of these devices contain copper. Other devices release progestogen. Emergency contraception is procedure that is used in case of birth control failure. Intrauterine devices that contain copper are used in emergency contraception.
Abortion is performed by surgical methods and drugs to end pregnancies. Some herbs are considered to induce abortion. However, their efficacy has not been proven, and doctors do not recommend them for use.
Sterilization is a permanent birth control method. It is known as vasectomy in men and tubal ligation in women. Fallopian tubes can be cut or blocked that prevent the sperm from joining the egg. Fertility awareness is a method that observes women’s fertility signs. These methods include devices, calendar-based methods, and charts used to monitor the menstrual cycle. Another method is the removal of the penis before ejaculation. Other methods of birth control are avoiding intercourse in the vagina and sexual abstinence (Hatcher, p. 103).
The most effective methods of birth control are sterilization, intrauterine devices, and implants. Other methods have varying degrees of success. They are dependant on their proper and correct usage. Condoms have a higher rate of success. They also prevent the spread of diseases like AIDS. Some methods of birth control protect people from sexually transmitted diseases. A condom is also helpful in preventing the transmission of diseases. Sexual abstinence protects a person from all types of sexually transmitted diseases (Hatcher, p. 104).
Most people in the West approve of contraception. It is a way by which individuals can plan their lives and families. It also reduces the risk of pregnancies amongst teenagers. It makes teenagers more responsible. Contraceptives are also beneficial for health as they can regulate the periods of women. Women using contraceptives also have less bleeding and cramps during their periods. Migraines, anemia, and headaches are also reduced by the use of contraceptives. They also help during symptoms of menopause. Birth control pills are effective in preventing skin problems. They also prevent ovarian cancer and inflammation of the pelvis.
The world population is growing very rapidly. This could place tremendous pressure on the world’s resources. If contraception was widely used, than it could allow nations to utilize the limited resources properly. The population time bomb can be controlled through contraception. This method is very easy and cheap as compared with any other methods (Nakamima, p. 145).
Contraception carries many other benefits. It gives women the right to chose pregnancy or not. This allows them to seek higher education and pursue careers. This is beneficial for a nation also as educated women are an asset for the country. Contraception protects women rights and allows their voices to be heard in the political system. Therefore in the long term contraception gives women the right to make their concerns be addressed (Nakamima, p. 145).
It also helps in reducing the risks of pregnancy. Millions of children and mothers die due to pregnancy problems and lack of effective medical care. It can reduce the size of huge families. It can allow the proper allocation and utilization of resources on few children. A huge birth rate can create negative impact on the health, economy and environment of a nation.
There are many types of contraception. Contraception has proven to have medical benefits. It also can prevent the risk of sexually transmitted diseases. It can also provide developing countries better means to allocate and utilize their limited resources in developing the economy and health of its people.
Hatcher, Managing Contraception 2007-2009. 9. US: Ardent Media, 2007.
Speroff, Leon. A A Clinical Guide for Contraception. 4. US: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005.
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Nakamima, Steven T.. Contemporary Guide to Contraception. 6. US: Handbooks in Health Care Company, 2006.