Criminal justice system reforms and other legal measures in the US have resulted in the creation of programs and specific laws that are fundamental to the improvement of child protection. This essay selects the enactment of Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act and International Parental Child Kidnapping Act from the study by Karmen (2016) and searches for evidence of the success of the provided measures to assist in the location of missing children.
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The enactment of the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act mandates that the FBI have to enter information regarding a missing or kidnapped child in the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) records in less than two hours after receiving notification from the police. In the majority of states, the adoption of the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act improved the registries greatly (Lytle, 2015). Since its enactment, it has demonstrated enhancement of child protection as many criminals of child sexual assault have been prosecuted under its directives thus resulting in the reduction of such acts. The application of the Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act demands every person found guilty of any sexually related offense to seek registration as a sex criminal for later posting on the internet where everyone can see. This has caused one person to be sentenced to life imprisonment for failing to register and taking advantage of his being homeless and lacking a constant physical address.
Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act offers effective measures that help in finding missing children through such things as the establishment of a countrywide database that entails collection of DNA evidence and record for easy tracking of offenders. The use of Global Positioning System expertise could also result in the easy tracing of criminals. The provision of law enforcement officers with sufficient resources under the Act enables them to find criminals of offenses against children and prosecute them successfully. Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act increased the compulsory minimum imprisonment term to 25 years for the offense of abducting a child and 30 years for sexual assault (Lytle, 2015). These measures prevent would-be criminals from engaging in such acts and ensure justice for victims.
The International Parental Child Kidnapping Act is useful in enhancing child protection and offering successful measures to help in finding missing children (Karmen, 2016). It is vital to assist child victims of parental kidnapping as they could be at a high risk of missing school and developing lasting psychological challenges such as mood changes, sleep disorder, violent conduct, eating problems, and nervousness to mention a few. If the child victims of parental kidnapping grow into adulthood and do not find valuable help, they could struggle with such things as identity, interrelations, and family matters.
In an effort of ensuring child protection, the International Parental Child Kidnapping Act outlaws cases of one parent removing their children from the US or keeping them in other nations with the aim of hindering the custodial rights of the other parent. For instance, a couple could have a daughter in the US and after a marital dispute, the mother moves with the child to a different nation with the purpose of keeping her away from the father with no intention of ever returning. The Act offers successful measures of locating kidnapped children and convicting the offenders as a way of preventing such actions (Karmen, 2016). Under the Act, any parent found guilty of such a crime could spend up to three years in prison. Moreover, the return of a kidnapped child to the US is usually reached through negotiation where the United States Department of State works with foreign representatives and law enforcement officers to realize successful outcomes.
Karmen, A. (2016). Crime victims: An introduction to victimology (9th ed.). Boston: Cengage Learning.
Lytle, R. (2015). Variation in criminal justice policy-making: An exploratory study using sex offender registration and community notification laws. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 26(3), 211-233.