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Crisis Management Analytical Essay


Introduction

Crisis is a symbol of an important business interruption that motivates the widespread coverage of mass-media news. The administration of crisis should be put in place to guarantee the well-being of an organization. This ought to be done by the Public Relations department whose starring role in crisis management must be clearly elaborated (Regester & Larkin, 2008). Crisis has some effects on the organization.

Initially, competence in communication will make certain and reflect the manner in which an organization PR manager handles the crisis. The role of PR, how these roles are efficiently implemented, along with how the PR communicates and engages with the media in dealing with crisis management is explained.

How the PR specialists manage crisis using key rules and 5Cs effective models of communication in dealing with the media is discussed. The paper also analyzes ways in which the PR exercises 3Ps of Jefkins in managing crisis.

The definition and effects of crisis in an organization

Crisis may possibly denote a significant business distraction that motivates widespread coverage of the mass-media news. This may mean dissimilar labels are being granted to the crisis contingent based on the likelihood of the incidence and level of risk involved (Ralhp & Yeomans, 2009). The concepts of issue and crisis management may well delineate a possible crisis that is, likely and unlikely crises.

The administration of crisis is depicted as an imprecise and extensive concept largely relating to the possible unlikely events that reduce the organizational functions. The likely crisis has an elevated risk of incidence including loss of company reputation, properties, or even death. However, the concept of crisis is considered as more focused in varied organizations (Seeger, Sellnow & Ulmer 1998).

Effective implementation of PRs role

Provision

The department of PR should ensure that there is the improvement of an even provision at the crisis management stage. The practitioners must put more emphasis on the communication amongst organizational group members. The strategy empowers the factions to reach an agreement and be reliable on what ways to divulge into the mass media (Seitel, 2011).

Uniformity in various organizations appears to be an actual pitfall. Therefore, it is significant to employ effective communication from the PR to stabilize this bottleneck and put it right. It is similarly essential to initiate an effective administration of information during the crisis moment. Hence, the PR puts media provision in place to curb an austere impairment to organization’s operation.

Preparation

The PR must make certain an arrangement of permanent lineup for crisis supervision. The management crews of certain organizations should consist of a combination of different individuals (Seitel, 2011). Certainly, this incorporates other departmental managers, communications, and Brands executives from Public Affairs department, and the managing directors.

Indeed, this will help the PR manager to manage the organizational crisis through adequate preparation (Cutlip, & Broom, 2006). However, lack of regular contact by way of correspondence or conference possibly emerges as a defect in preparation. The PR practitioners organize crisis management preparations regularly for efficiency and efficacy management.

Prevention

According to Coombs (1999), the PR should source the process of prevention through forestalling whatever might not go well in an organization (Millar (2002). The PR should implement apt crisis management strategies and classically administer crisis management plans.

Really, the Public Relations should look various loopholes in the crisis management plan that could ascend over a particular period. The PR experts make sure they prevent the happening rather than to deal with the catastrophe, which might come about.

The 5Cs communication models

The PR must not panic, doubt, or fail to address the matter because it could create suspicion. In fact, communication made by the PR manager should be done without arrogance and with confidence to initiate oneness in the corporation (Barton, 2007). Third, during the occurrence of a crisis, it is essential for the PR to communicate in a controlled way and demonstrate that the condition is under control.

For example, from the start until the culmination of an affair of crisis, clarity is actually important for effecting the role of the PR (Mitroff, 2003). Whoever is communicating the crisis ought to use clear correspondences and communicate it with clarity to augment ease during the process of management.

Throughout the duration of crisis, the PR manager through recurrent messages to repute good public relation should lay notice. Finally, PR necessitates showing their concerns for everything or everybody involved in the event of crisis, the clienteles, workers, and the condition of crisis itself.

Hence, concerning the key rules dealing with the media in a crisis it is important for the PR to engage media through concern communication (Lerbinger, 1997).

The PRs engagement and correspondence with media

Due to energy, finance, and costs of time, many organizational PRs do not prioritize preparedness. Hitherto, it is today significant for an organization to engage rules and communicate with media in readiness for the crisis. However, communication directors frequently outlay a number of motives for failure to communicate properly.

Among these motives is illuminating repetitive or proprietary info that might give the corporation fresh competitive disadvantages (Coombs, 2007). Secondly, unless the PR fabricates the issue of how to solve the crisis then communication will remain poor.

Furthermore, communication fails if the company faces recent bottlenecks and is unable to comment on it since the problem will influence the entire corporate reputation. In addition, lack of a skilled communication personnel or spokesperson causes communication barrier thus, the situation should be reversed through proper recruitment of competent personnel (Ulmer et al, 2006).

Finally, crave to evade panic and the company requirements to collect all facts before it is conversed make the department of PR not to communicate crisis information properly (Lecture, n.d.).

In the course of crisis, media is the utmost frequently used channel of communiqué by the PR in several organizations. Nonetheless, to communicate to the mass media is repeatedly critical. Bearing in mind, communication of crisis becomes a problem in the absence of trained spokesperson.

Therefore, the Public Relation in an organization should put in place the crisis managers to communicate with the media fraternity. For this to be effective, then these employed organizational spokesmen should engage and follow the 5Cs rule of media communication (Venette, 2003).

The function of Public Relation in the management of crisis

Successful Crisis management: The 2010 BP oil spill

The BP oil group is one of the examples of organizations that successfully dealt with crises. BP Corp properly managed the April 2010 oil spillage catastrophe. The corporation managed the crisis via its strategies built on the courage of doing the right thing, consistency, admiration, and good media communication.

Besides, the department of Public Relations found at BP ensures the improvement of the even provision at the crisis management stage. For instance, the practitioners put more emphasis on the communication amongst organizational group members.

The provisions empower the factions to reach an agreement and be reliable on what ways to divulge information to the mass media (Seitel, 2011). Hence, the PR manager at BP Oil Group puts media provision in place to curb an austere impairment to the organization’s operation.

With the comprehensive PR powers to audit and administer the corporation’s operations around the globe, BP Corporation was adequately prepared and able to publicize the formation on fresh safety divisions few months after the spillage.

BP succeeded to manage this crisis successfully through its preparation strategies intended to streamline the upstream departments into Production, Development, as well as Exploration divisions from a single business (Regester & Larkin, 2008).

Further, in respects to preparations, the BP Public Relations manager makes certain the arrangement of permanent lineup for crisis supervision. Indeed, the crisis management preparations reveal that the BP Public Relations manager maneuvers to manage the organizational crisis through adequate preparation (Cutlip, & Broom, 2006).

The inbound CEO initially brought these three units into being with the aim of reconstituting trust in BP. Thus, the spillage and fire that engulfed BP was seized successfully.

BP oil group also implemented some crisis prevention strategies. As Coombs (1999) claims, the BP Oil Group PR sources the process of prevention through forestalling whatever might not go well in the organization.

In fact, the BP Oil Group employed this better safe than sorry strategy while adopting the classical crisis administration plan. The Public Relations looked after the watershed matters that could ascend over a particular period.

When the BP 2010 oil crisis occurred, the PR showed competence in communication by keeping contact by parties involved, made certain and reflected the manner through which BP PR manager handled the crisis. The PR hardly panicked, doubted, or failed to address the matter relating to the incident.

In fact, communication made by the BP PR manager lacked arrogance and were with confidence to initiate oneness in the BP Corporation. During the BP crisis occurrence, the PR communicated in a controlled way and confirmed that the condition is under control. There was clarity when articulating the crisis information. The BP Corp PR manager showed concerns for everything involved in the event of crisis.

Poor crisis management: Toyota Corporation

Poor crisis management strategy at Toyota in the fiscal 2010 caused the company its cars long-term reliability and quality reputation. Toyota emerged as the global dominant and entrenched car manufacturer in the fiscal 2007. Nevertheless, the image and dominant position of Toyota began to dwindle in the financial year 2007 as the company faced jeopardy.

Indeed, Toyota cars were criticized from 2009 when various United States road accidents pointed at the unreliability and poor quality of Toyota vehicles.

Initially, Toyota Corporation blamed the clients asserting that it was not the company’s fault. Later, the corporation claimed that most Toyota road accidents might have materialized from particular problems encountered when using different models to create the cars floor mats (Ira, 2008).

In 2010 January, there were additional road carnages and reports that made the company to recollect approximately 2.30 million vehicles, which had gas knob setbacks. Toyota hardly assumed the right communication strategies. In the awake of the crisis, the information articulated was not clear since it hardly addressed the subject matter or the concerns being raised.

The respondent, Toyota management, appeared non-confident when addressing issues relating to the crisis. Lack of confidence emerged from doubts they showed when managing the crisis together with late response to the complaints. The company crisis management team appeared incompetent given that they took longer time prior to appearing before the public to address their concerns.

The incapability resulted from the fact that the crisis management team wanted the issues to be addressed by the lawyers, thus raising further doubts (Ira, 2008). Lack of control and agency when handling crisis meant that Toyota Corporation failed to retain its long-standing reputation.

Conversely, non-uniformity in Toyota provisions appeared to be an actual pitfall. The company failed to employ effective communication provisions from the PR to stabilize this bottleneck and put it right. Besides, Toyota hardly initiated an effective administration of information during the crisis moment.

Hence, appointment of the new communications head and PR manager should put media provision in place to curb an austere impairment to organization’s operation. These impairments may result from any institution establishment of spoiled goodwill and damage to the repute of Toyota (Erika, 2008).

To manage properly crisis, it is advisable that an organization should be adequately prepared. However, this was not the case with Toyota. The company lacked regular contact with the parties concerned and clients for example there was no correspondence or conference held with such stakeholders after, and before the crisis occurred.

The PR manager circumvented this to provide the lowdown and empower the crisis strategy (Ira, 2008). Crisis management preparations at Toyota were only reviewed after the incidence had taken place. Hence, it is advisable that the Public Relation practitioners should organize crisis management preparations regularly for efficiency and efficacy management.

Coombs (1999) asserted that PR experts must make sure they prevent the happening rather than to deal with the catastrophe. At Toyota Corp, the blame was shifted from the company to the clients.

Measures were hardly put in place to prevent the occurrences and reoccurrences of the crises. The communication title of apt subjects and implausible concerns namely, the concerns and disaster administration did not take care of the crisis deterrence phase (Ira, 2008).

Conclusion

Crisis should be properly managed by the organizational PR to ensure success. The administration of crisis is depicted as an imprecise and extensive concept largely relating to the possible unlikely events that reduce organizational functions. It is therefore important to employ and make certain the role of PR openly in the organization.

The engagement of an administrative crisis plan visualizes the safety of organization reputation in any case there is repute hindrance. Hence, to deal with crisis management the PR general practitioners should play an important role in ensuring the application of 3Ps of crisis.

Conversely, the PR should communicate and engage with the media group. This could be by initiating the rules of communication and dealing with the media, including the 5Cs communication models. In fact, the mode of dealing with the issue and crisis management would determine whether an organization would have poor or successful crisis management.

References

Barton, L 2007, Crisis leadership now: a real-world guide to preparing for threats, disaster, sabotage, and scandal, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Coombs, W T 1999, Ongoing crisis communication: planning, managing, and responding, Sage Publishers, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Coombs, W T 2007, Ongoing crisis communication: planning, managing, and responding, Sage Publishers, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Cutlip, AH & Broom, GM 2006, Effectively public relations, Prentice Hall international, New York, NY.

Erika, J 2008, “Linking crisis management and leadership competencies: the role of human resource development,” Advances in Developing Human Resources, vol.10 no. 3, pp. 352.

Ira, K 2008, How Toyota’s crisis management failures added to the billion-dollar settlement, Marshall School of Business, USC.

Lecture N n.d. “Business school: pr concepts and campaigns, crisis management,” Harvard Business Review.

Lerbinger, O 1997, The crisis manager: facing risk and responsibility, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ.

Mitroff, I 2003, Crisis leadership: planning for the unthinkable, John Wiley, New York, NY.

Ralhp, T & Yeomans, L 2009, Exploring public relation, Prentice Hall, New York, NY.

Regester, M & Larkin, J 2008, Risk issues and crisis management in public relations: a casebook of best practice, Kogan Page Publishers, London, UK.

Seeger, M, Sellnow, T, & Ulmer, R 1998, “Communication, organization, and crisis,” Communication Yearbook, vol.21 no.2, pp.231–275.

Seitel, FP 2011, The practice of public relations, Prentice Hall, New York, NY.

Smith, L, & Millar, D 2002, Crisis management and communication: how to gain and maintain control, International Association of Business Communicators, San Francisco, CA.

Ulmer, RR, Sellnow, TL & Seeger, MW 2006, Effective crisis communication: moving from crisis to opportunity, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, CA.

Venette, SJ 2003, Risk communication in a high reliability organization: APHIS PPQ’s inclusion of risk in decision-making, UMI ProQuest Information and Learning, Ann Arbor, MI.

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Knapp, Lina. "Crisis Management." IvyPanda (blog), April 18, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/crisis-management-4/.

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Knapp, Lina. 2019. "Crisis Management." IvyPanda (blog), April 18, 2019. https://ivypanda.com/essays/crisis-management-4/.

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Knapp, L. (2019) 'Crisis Management'. IvyPanda, 18 April.

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