Describe and define “Identity Theft”. How does this cybercrime affect individuals? Describe some types of identity theft methods and crimes
Identity theft implies using someone’s account or ID for unlawful purposes and to gain particular advantages (Meulen, 2011). It could be said that this cybercrime has a negative effect on the individuals, as it might influence their social image and financial stability. As for the types, financial identity theft is one of the examples, and it associates with using someone’s ID in gaining monetary benefits (Meulen, 2011). Meanwhile, synthetic identity theft implies using several documents and IDs to generate a novel identity to use in personal interest (Meulen, 2011).
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Describe the crimes of cyberstalking and cyber harassment. How does cyberbullying fit into these crimes?
Cyberstalking is cybercrime, which can be described as following another person’s actions, and harassment implies the inappropriate online behavior, which has a negative impact on the psychological and physical state of the victim (Eastton & Taylor, 2011). As for cyberbullyingg, this concept has a correlation with cyberbullying and cyberstalking, as it focusing on threatening the victim and having a damaging influence on his/her lifestyle and psychological state.
How does civil law apply to cyber law? Give some examples of how a person can be held civilly liable for a cyber-act upon another individualor entity
It remains apparent that cybercrimes are handled by civil law, as it contributes to choosing a relevant punishment (Eastton & Taylor, 2011). It could be said that one of the examples is the spread of the children pornography, as this crime is prohibited by family law (Eastton & Taylor, 2011). Another instance is the violation of the company’s rules related to the spread of the information in the social media, and it might be regarded as a primary cause of the dismissal of the employee (Eastton & Taylor, 2011).
What are the hated groups and how do they affect users of the Internet? Give some examples of cyberhate groups
The hate groups unite individuals, who express negative attitudes about particular events and social aspects (Barnett, 2007). It could be said that these groups tend to affect the perceptions of the individuals about the important social matters and modify their opinions in the negative directions, and one of the examples is the anti-governmental groups.
Describe how fraud can be accomplished on the Internet and name various types of cybercrimes involving fraud
The fraud can be easily accomplished on the Internet by using specialized software to hack personal information and use it for wrongful purposes (Whitman & Mattord, 2011). In this case, the fraud can be represented by various cybercrimes including identity theft and extortion, which imply taking advantage of the classified information and person’s ID to reach individual goals (Whitman & Mattord, 2011).
Describe various non-access crimes and how they affect individuals and organizations
Various non-access crimes are defined by scheduling an attack (viruses and denial-service attacks) on the users and the organization without having direct access to their desktops (Eastton & Taylor, 2011). The viruses tend to destroy the information in the organizational system or individual users or may slow down efficiency (Kizza, 2001). Meanwhile, the denial-service-attacks decreases the effectiveness of the organizational functioning due to the inability to access a particular service.
Explain why constitutional law is vital to the area of cyber law
Constitutional law is a critical concept in the era of the rise of the cybercrimes since it tends to protect the human rights and freedoms (Dudley, Braman, & Vincenti, 2011). In this case, it defines whether particular actions violate the rights of the individuals. Meanwhile, the concepts of constitutional law define the freedoms of users.
What is administrative cyber law? How is that law created and by what entity?
The administrative cyber law covers the legal aspects, which are present on the Internet (Whitman & Mattord, 2011). It remains apparent that the law was established by different administrative agencies to ensure the protection of the country (Whitman & Mattord, 2011).
Define white, grey, and black hat hackers
White hat hackers are the professional, who utilize their skills to contribute to the investigation or in other positive purposes (Gibson, 2015). On the contrary, the black hat hacker has well-developed IT skills and tend to use their knowledge for wrongful intentions (Gibson, 2015). Lastly, the gray hat hackers might use their competences in various situations differently (Maurushat, 2013).
Barnett, B. (2007). Untangling the web of hate: Are online “hate sites” deserving of First Amendment protection. Youngstown, NY: Cambria Press.
Dudley, A., Braman, J., & Vincenti, G. (2011). Investigating cyber law and cyber ethics: Issues, Impacts, and practices. Hershey, PA: Information Science Press.
Eastton, C., & Taylor, J. (2011). Computer crime, investigation, and law. Boston, MA: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Gibson, D. (2015). Investigating help desk specialist skills. Indianapolis, IN: Pearson Education.
Kizza, J. (2001). Computer network security and cyber ethics. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc.
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Maurushat, A. (2013). Disclosure of security vulnerabilities: Legal and ethical issues. Berlin, Germany: Springer Science+Business Media.
Meulen, N. (2011). Financial identity theft: Context, challenges, and countermeasures. Berlin, Germany: Springer Science+Business Media.
Whitman, M., & Mattord, H. (2011). Readings & cases in information security: Law & ethics. Boston, MA: Course Technology, Cengage Learning