Nowadays, a large percentage of the population suffers from kidney disease and dialysis (Collins, Foley, Gilbertson, & Chen, 2015). In this context, research concerning these issues is relevant. The present paper examines the key components of the future study that will focus on the clinical question of whether the primary care of high quality affects people with kidney disease and end-stage renal disease within five years in comparison with the usual care. The high-quality care includes dietary education and careful monitoring.
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Study design. Taking into account the formulated clinical question, a descriptive study seems suitable because the five years is considered. Hospital records that will presumably be used give the opportunity not only to save time but also to extract the necessary information promptly and exactly (Suki & Massry, 2012).
Setting/sample. It is suggested that a heterogeneous sample of patients affected by kidney disease and end-stage renal disease should be chosen. This sampling method makes the planned descriptive study wider: patients of different backgrounds, gender, and age will be compared. The study will be designed in the hospital setting using the hospital’s records from which clinical data related to patient demographics, preceding clinical history, serum creatinine, and urine output per hour will be acquired.
Confidentiality of the study. First and foremost, it is expected that the majority of the facts will be collected anonymously. After the information is gathered and analyzed, facts connected with personal issues that may become necessary during the research process will be deleted. The access to the research data will correlate to the “minimum necessary” standard: closed health data are not be used or disclosed until they are significant to achieve a certain goal or serve some function. In terms of research, it implies that nothing prohibits researchers from conditioning enrollment in a research study on the execution of authorization for the use of pre-existing health information (Health Information Privacy, n.d.).
Procedures/intervention. Two types of observation are to be considered. First, the impact of renal diet education must be viewed: patients who were educated on the peculiarities of dietary and water consumption patterns will be compared with those who remained ignorant. The temporal variations will be studied. On the other hand, close monitoring is to be considered: patients who received better medical management and individuals who went to the regular evaluation will be compared on the ground of their health indicators.
Instruments/scales and measurement of outcomes. In the context of the descriptive study, the instruments of a mixed design will be important (Frels & Onwuegbuzie, 2013). Quantitative instruments will be needed for work with figures while the qualitative ones will help analyze the opinions of professionals provided in their interviews.
Data collection: methods of collection. The observation of the hospital records for five years in a row will be among the main instruments to understand how various types of patient monitoring and different levels of dietary awareness influence patient outcomes. Questionnaires will be another instrument (Holloway & Wheeler, 2013). Health care specialists will receive them via e-mail: they will be able to give their answers at their earliest convenience (Cleary, Horsfall, & Hayter, 2014). The contents of the questionnaires will touch upon their experience with the categories of patients described above. The interviewees will be suggested to assess different approaches and their impact on patients’ health.
Data collection: testing frequency. Taking into consideration the study design, pre- or posttests are not necessary. In the process of research, the initial hospital records data will be enlarged. As for interviews, baseline data in the form of some short facts about the interviewees, such as experience or duty position, will be collected.
Cleary, M., Horsfall, J., & Hayter, M. (2014). Data collection and sampling in qualitative research: does size matter? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 70(3), 473-475.
Collins, A. J., Foley, R. N., Gilbertson, D. T., & Chen, S. C. (2015). United States Renal Data System public health surveillance of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. Kidney International Supplements, 5(1), 2-7.
Frels, R. K., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2013). Administering quantitative instruments with qualitative interviews: A mixed research approach. Journal of Counseling & Development, 91(2), 184-194.
Health Information Privacy. (n.d.). Minimum necessary.
Holloway, I., & Wheeler, S. (2013). Qualitative research in nursing and healthcare. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Suki, W. N., & Massry, S, G. (2012). Therapy of renal diseases and related disorders. Hingham, MA: Springer Science & Business Media.