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Design: Construction Essay

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Updated: Apr 12th, 2022

Introduction

Required documents on site before beginning a construction

Before undertaking any construction various documents must be in place on the site. They range from construction certificate from the Environmental Planning Assessment Amendment Act that is obtained in accordance with section 81A (2) (a) of the act. Contracting documents, that contain among other things drawings, specifications, construction programme, contract terms & conditions, development schedule, etc., help in close supervision of the construction.

This is the document that the contractor commits himself to accomplish the agreed task for an agreed payment. Of more importance are the plans. They include site plan, floor plan, elevations engineering and service plans that have to be duly signed and stamped by the appropriate authorities. The development and consent conditions document contain specific requirements that are certified by the approving authority.

The specification document has a full description of all the work to be done and may include a description of finishes. This document helps to create a clear picture of what should be expected at the end of the project. Also to be found on site, is the call forward sheets document that provides a summary of the programme and has details of the supplies needed, including the name and address of the supplier and sub-contractors. It indicates a description of the required equipment to be ordered and its task.

It contains the order numbers, the date the order was placed and the expected date of delivery. Also found on the site are the documents that have changed and revision of the original plan. They have both drawings and writing of the revision that explain the documentation against the original document for comparison purposes. A document register, maintained in a spreadsheet is, among other documents, used to check and monitor changes to all documents in the original plan.

Project schedules are also important documents that are required before any construction is commenced. It shows the progress of the project. It presents the allocation of resources as labour, materials and cash flows. All tasks to be done are listed in order, one after completion of another.

Part 1

  1. The nature and type of soil.
  2. In cases where neighbouring houses need support from damage. This consumes time not initially allocated in the time schedule.
  3. A communication on interruption of sequencing of material provision. Due to the type of soil where the project is being done, I have seen it necessary to make changes to the sequencing of provision of materials. This will allow more time to support the neighbouring premises as per the Development Consent act no. 12
  4. In the explanation, I will include the consequences that are involved in case no care is provided to neighbouring houses, since the costs will increase in case there is damage to the houses that may need support. The owners of such houses are entitled to full compensation by the developer.

Window order schedule

Project: windows Date: 10/1/2013
Required date 11/2/2013
Description Order Amount
Qty Rate
1 Fixed window 1400hX1500w 1 $250.00 $250.00
2 Awning window 1800hX800w 1 $420.00 $420.00
3 Awning window 1400hX1500w 1 $320.00 $320.00
4 Awning window 2000hX800w 1 $450.00 $450.00
5 Sliding window 1000hX600w Obsecure Glass 1 $300.00 $300.00
6 Slide window 1300hX1500w obscure toughened glass 1 $750.00 $750.00
7 Fixed window 3150hX850w Obscure Toughened Glass 1 $1100.00 $1100.00
8 Awning window 2000hX1800w 1 $1050.00 $1050.00
9 Fixed window 1200hX1500w 1 $225.00 $225.00
10 Sliding window 1400hX1800w 1 $320.00 $320.00
11 Sliding window 2000hX2100w 1 $900.00 $900.00
12 Sliding window 2000hX1800w 1 $850.00 $850.00
13 Sliding window 1300hX1800w 1 $300.00 $300.00

Call forwardsheet

Ordering Supplier details
Task Order no. Order
Day
Delivery
Date
Material
Supplier
Contractor Supplier
Contact no.
Comments
Base stage
1 Ground slab OO1 2/1/13 13/1/13 Herdy Builders 8587998
2 Timber wall frame 002 15/1/13 31/1/13 Leacy timber yard 8766544
3 Windows 003 10/1/13 11/2/13 Steel dealers 9087678
4 Bricks 004 5/2/13 11/2/13 Tile centre 7654320
5 Services Rough In 005 11/2/13 Tile centre 7654320
6 Roof tiles 006 8/2/13 13/2/13 Trm tiles 1234567
7 Plasterboard 007 29/1/13 3/3/13 Trm tiles 1234567
8 Install kitchen 008 10/3/13 Tile centre 7654320
9 Floor and wall tiles 009 5/3/13 10/3/13 Clay suppliers 8087575
10 Bedroom fixtures 010 13/3/13 Clay supliers 8087575
11 Paint 011 10/3/13 TR Paints 8764358
12 Kitchen appliance 012 19/3/13 Tile centre 7654320

Contractual allowances

Framework $928

Concreter $4639. 2

Ground works $1600

Total $7167. 2

Overheads 15% $1075. 08

Sub total $8242. 28

Risk factor 15% $1236. 3

Sub total $9478. 58

Profit 17% $1611. 36

Total $11089. 94

Reasonable cost due to variation

Machine and driver 16hrs X $85 = $1360

Labourer 16hrs X $45 = $720

Total variation $2080

The claim of $2080 is on the lower side. The reasonable claim, therefore, should be more than $2080, since there may be other uncertainties like machine breakdown and time may be more than 16 hours.

Variation schedule
Variation no. Date Explanation Item Cost Total cost
1 1/1/2011 Rock excavation on ground works as variation Rock excavation $2080
Total variation $2080

Additional costs in variation

Due to the nature of hard rock that was being excavated, the number of working hours increased by 7. At the same time the fuel consumption of the machine increased considerably, including the machine repairs as a result of hard rock excavation. This has resulted in an increase in excavation cost by $1724. 05 as shown in the variable table below.

Variation schedule
Variation no. Date Explanation Item Cost Total cost
2 1/1/2011 Additional costs in rock exaction in time, fuel consumption and machine repairs Additional costs on time $910
Fuel consumption $600
Machine repairs $214.05
Initial cost -$2080
Total variation $1724.05

Progress claim and payment

Contract allowance $11089. 94

Total variations $3804. 05

Adjustable allowance $14893.99 (Less)

Cost of work not completed

Amount to be paid $5165. 55

Question eight

Payment worksheet

Description Unit Qty Rate Amount Allowance Paid
Ground works $1600
Formwork Lm 29 $32. 00 $928
Concreter Unit Qty Rate Amount Allowance Paid
Supply & lay sand blinding layer max 50mm Sqm 51 $8. 50 $433. 50
Supply and install 200um concrete underlay Sqm 51 $2. 20 $112. 20
Supply & install trench mesh Lm 29 $18. 00 $522. 00
Supply and install SL 82 mesh to slab Sqm 51 $12. 00 $612. 00
Pour slab max 150 mm depth-no dump Cu.m 7 $420.00 $2,730. 00
Steel towel finish Sqm 51 $4. 50 $229. 50
Variations $3804.05
Total collections $10971.25 $10971. 25

Amended call forward sheet

Ordering Supplier details
Task Order no. Order
Day
Delivery
Date
Material
Supplier
Contractor Supplier
Contact no.
Comments
Base stage
1 Ground slab OO1 2/1/13 13/1/13 Herdy Builders 8587998
2 Timber wall frame 002 15/1/13 31/1/13 Leacy timber yard 8766544
3 Windows 003 10/1/13 14/2/13 Steel dealers 9087678
4 Bricks 004 5/2/13 11/2/13 Tile centre 7654320
5 Services Rough In 005 11/2/13 Tile centre 7654320
6 Roof tiles 006 8/2/13 13/2/13 Trm tiles 1234567
7 Plasterboard 007 29/1/13 3/3/13 Trm tiles 1234567
8 Install kitchen 008 10/3/13 Tile centre 7654320
9 Floor and wall tiles 009 5/3/13 10/3/13 Clay suppliers 8087575
10 Bedroom fixtures 010 13/3/13 Clay supliers 8087575
11 Paint 011 10/3/13 TR Paints 8764358
12 Kitchen appliance 012 19/3/13 Tile centre 7654320

Variation Cover letter

Dickens Construction Company,

Beric Centre, Delfolk street,

DX 3456, Delfolk street

Telephone 23458765

The director,

Steel dealers,

Nolfok Ryde

DX 45647,Ryde

Telephone 9087678

Dear sir,

RE: CHANGE OF ORDER

Due to the revision by my client on all WC and bathroom windows, I hereby notify you to make changes in the initial order. The windows are to have obscure glasses.

The details of the changes are enclosed with the current purchase order.

Thank you for your continued support.

Yours faithfully,

John Hurry.

Contractor;

Dickens Construction Company.

Variation document

Variation schedule
Variation no. Date Explanation Item Cost Total cost
3 1/1/2011 Change of WC and bathroom windows to have obscure glasses cost for WC $450.00 $900.00
Cost for bathroom $500.00 $1000.00
Initial cost -$1700.00
Total variation $200.00

Components of filling sand include sand, cement, water proof and water. This can be done by a mixer or mixed manually by use of a spade to properly mix all the ingredients used in making filling sand. Good filling sand should be used as soon as it gets ready. This helps in making a stronger structure before it begins to dry up.

Reinforcement materials include timber, trees or metal rods. All floors apart from the ground floor, are supported by wall studs that are supported firmly by horizontal nog. The support is necessary when the floor is wet as it helps to prevent it from collapsing. The timber or trees that are used as wall studs should be strong enough as the mass to be supported is heavy.

Vapour barrier plastics, that are used to prevent the slab, used to make concrete from becoming dumb. This practice makes the floors and walls stronger preventing them from collapsing. Water absorbed by walls that are not made from strong water proof agents are vulnerable to short life spans. Water weakens the strength of cement used in construction. Damp walls, have their paint coming off since paint is a water repellent.

Concrete –sand/gravel, water and a water dosing system of water. This controls the amount of water needed and regulates the sand humidity. The movable charging moving scale is used to extract and dose individual types of sand and gravel. Water has to be moderated with cement to give the best quality of concrete.

Qualities of personnel for construction

There are several qualities that should be considered in a contractor personnel. To begin with, the first requirement for a good personnel is a permanent accessible mail and telephone number for enhancing easy access and communication. Moreover, experience is another important quality that should be looked into. This gives the client confidence in the work to be done by the contractor. Of importance, a good personnel should have an insurance policy. This helps the client not to compensate the contractor in case of incidences of accidents. Flexibity, is another quality that should be looked into in a contractor.

The best contractor is to be ready to make any changes where necessary that will produce quality work, and has to make the concerned authorities aware of such changes. To crown it all, the personnel should give a warranty of a given period of time to the task being undertaken. This is subject to the agreement documents that are signed during the contracting stage.

The task and reasons for sub-contracting

Sub-contructing is essential in areas like catering that involves supply of foodstuffs to the personnel at the construction site, printing of materials that include the documents that are found in the construction site. Plastering, decorations and painting can be sub-contracted since they are not so sensitive areas that may cause alarm on the strength of the house. Water supplies and transportation of construction materials to the site can also be sub-contracted.

Sub-contracting helps to complete the work at the agreed time, gives the main contractor flexibility as he can hire and fire workers depending on the amount of work. Sub-contracting is cheaper, because the contractor can negotiate downwards of the initial payments made. In case of accidents, the contractor is not entitled to pay the sub-contracted workers. The contractor has power to give orders to whoever he sub-contarcts. This makes them easy to manipulate to give the best out of them.

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