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Digital Gaming in the Classroom: Teacher’s View Research Paper


“Teacher Candidates’ Views of Digital Games as Learning Devices”, by Sardone and Delvin-Scherer

Research problem

In the article, “Teacher Candidates’ Views of Digital Games as Learning Devices”, by Sardone and Delvin-Scherer (2009), the researchers examined teacher-candidate perspectives towards integrating digital gaming design into the contemporary curricula coupled with how it supports the development of complex reasoning techniques. The authors identified that a more technology-based approach was a meaningful solution to complex problems when learning in the K-12 curriculum. The authors identified that there was a problem when identifying the learning preference of the K-12 students coupled with how well instructional methods would suit their learning preferences, which was then the problem of the research. Therefore, the authors conducted a study to address the existent gaps in the available literature on the subject.

Research questions

  1. What might “digital games teach preservice candidates about the role of an instructional facilitator?” (Sardone & Delvin-Scherer, 2009, p. 48). The authors wanted to show that digital-based learning supports candidates’ development by issuing evidence gathered from research.
  2. What are the teacher candidate perceptions and responses to digital-based learning?

Data collection procedure

This study used designed interviews to collect data, which was analyzed through the qualitative approach for a sample of 25 participants of ages ranging from 20-22.

Findings

The findings indicated that training teachers to use classroom digital game improved their understanding and students improved their concentration levels, increased their motor skills, which encourages quick response and risk-taking when tackling real-life situations. Digital gaming provoked students to reason critically coupled with developing elaborate problem-solving skills.

“Perceptions of the Value of Digital Mini-Games: Implications for Middle School Classrooms” by Ray and Coulter

Research purpose

In this study, Ray and Coulter (2010), sought to establish whether digital mini-games improve learning among middle school students. The authors wanted to reexamine the use of games to improve academic outcomes. The research problem was to highlight the challenges teachers face when providing meaningful instructions to students about digital learning. The digital learning platform is still growing and just like any other system under evolution, challenges are inevitable. Therefore, the researchers wanted to address one of the many challenges in digital learning as stated above.

Research questions

  1. To what extent does that perception change due to their participation in the chosen digital mini-games in class? The authors wanted to imply that digital learning could support authentic learning if keenly selected. Also, digital learning could create a positive perception if utilized well. The technological developments in contemporary times have occasioned the need to integrate the same in the learning system.
  2. Do teachers view that digital games contribute to academic learning? What are these perceptions?

Data collection procedure

Questionnaires were administered to collect data from a sample of 18 pre-service teachers aged between 20 and 50. The questions were structured based on theoretical writings regarding the learning theory and the motivation to learn.

Findings

After participating, most teachers agreed that their perceptions about digital mini-games improved, and if integrated into schools, it improved the social validity. This validity entails creating a hands-on experience for the student about the technologically evolving world. Digital learning provided meaningful learning choices that motivated students positively. Learners are in a position to improve their planning and formulation techniques, as well as a good understanding of contents since digital mini-games offer students the opportunity to learn by doing.

Teacher Candidate Responses to Digital Games: 21st-Century Skills Development” by Sardone and Delvin-Scherer

Research purpose

Sardone and Delvin-Scherer (2010), in the article “Teacher Candidate Responses to Digital Games: 21st-Century Skills Development”, suggest that teachers have been reluctant to incorporate digital games in learning. There was the problem of determining the students’ ability to recognize inspirational factors related to learning using digital games. Learning using digital games is an emerging phenomenon in the education sector and it comes with its challenges, hence this study sought to address the issue of the students’ ability to recognize inspirational factors associated with the system, which is one of the key problems affecting the learning system.

Research questions

  1. What are the preservice teacher reactions toward digital learning games? The authors sought to show that inspirational elements embedded in digital games boosted the students’ ability to learn. Digital games capture the attention of the students, which in return enables them to learn more effectively for the learning process is highly dependent on the students’ concentration levels.
  2. Do students have the ability to identify the motivational aspects and the contemporary techniques embedded in digital games?

Data collection procedure

Survey questions, observation, and focus group interviews were used to record the candidates’ observations during the play. Data were analyzed through qualitative and quantitative approaches.

Findings

Through digital games, participants indicated improved communication and problem-solving skill development. Attitude predetermines the individual’s perception of something. However, since the digital gameplay has become a common factor in the US and it offers a fascinating way to enhance understanding of complex concepts, teachers have started to appreciate the role of digital games in K-12 curricula.

“Digital game-based learning once removed: Teaching teachers” by Becker

Research purpose

According to the article, “Digital game-based learning once removed:

Teaching teachers”, by Becker (2007), teachers can only embrace digital game-oriented learning if only they are assisted to generate a clear understanding of the benefits, demerits, and their ability to employ games precisely to promote learning. The problem was that teachers lacked prior preparation to adopt technology into learning. Conventionally, individuals are resistant to change due to the uncertainties associated with the process. Some teachers may abhor the complexities associated with the change process, which might also mean that they lose jobs if they cannot learn and implement the system.

Research questions

  1. Do instructors in North America possess the skills to initiate technology precisely? The author implies that teachers lack the relevant knowledge on how to incorporate digital knowledge. Therefore equipped with requisite skills, teachers would initiate the desired technology, which would lead to improved learning outcomes for the students.
  2. What do teachers need to familiarize themselves with regarding digital games?

Data collection procedure

Data was gathered using structured questionnaires to facilitate interviews with a sample of 18 class participants accessed from a local teacher population in the US. A qualitative data analysis approach was used.

Findings

At the start of the survey, the participants were pessimistic about the impact of games in learning, but as the study progressed, their attitudes changed. Participants found that games that they played for leisure, such as The Sims, had the potential to improve communication and quick thinking due to the challenges experienced in the course of the play.

“Effectiveness of Using Games in Teaching Grammar to Young Learners” by Yolageldili and Arikan

Research purpose

The article, “Effectiveness of Using Games in Teaching Grammar to Young Learners”, by Yolageldili and Arikan (2011) suggests that language games offer a rich platform for young students to master a foreign language. Both the teachers and students failed to show the desire to incorporate games when teaching and learning English in the Turkish EFL education, and this problem needed to be addressed to achieve the desired objectives.

Research questions

  1. When is the appropriate time to incorporate games in classroom learning and which game is appropriate to use? The author implied that teachers should have the ability to identify the right time to introduce digital learning during a lesson.
  2. To what extent is using games to teach grammar to young learners effective from the viewpoint of Turkish EFL teachers.

Data collection procedure

Data collection was done through descriptive questionnaires composed of fifteen questions for a sample of 15 EFL teachers to respond to.

Findings

When issuing instructions to learners, games provide simple demonstrations, which are easily learned as opposed to lengthy explanations. About 87% of the respondents indicated that games improved skill development for young students learning a second language. One key benefit was that games broaden the thinking ability and sharpen interactive skills.

“Implementing digital game-based learning in schools: Augmented learning environment of ‘Europe 2045” by Brom, Sisler, and Slavik

Research purpose

The study, “Implementing digital game-based learning in schools: Augmented learning environment of ‘Europe 2045”, by Brom, Sisler, and Slavik (2010) suggests that the traditional way of schooling has benefited from the incorporation of digital game-based learning (DGBL). The purpose was to establish the challenges of incorporating games into formal learning environments and identify ways to solve these problems. The problem was that educators used the traditional ways of schooling alongside digital learning, but a paradigm shift was necessary for a bid to access the benefits of full-fledged video games.

Research questions

  1. How does implementing DGBL in schools facilitate learning and whether Europe 2045 could be adopted within the formal school system and whether it could have a positive impact on both teachers and students? The authors wanted to show that traditional ways of schooling could not match the technology in place and time was due for them to switch to digital-based learning.
  2. “Did students benefit more from the game compared to a control group, which was being taught traditionally?” (Brom et al., 2010, p. 27).

Data collection procedure

Data was collected through survey questions and observations. The analysis used both qualitative and quantitative methods for the 188 respondents.

Findings

The findings indicated that most teachers developed a positive attitude towards DGBL after training, but there were challenges while initiating the game within their classrooms, therefore they required more assistance. Nevertheless, DGBL offers students a chance to examine problems and enhance technology proficiency.

Serious game-based and nongame-based online courses: Learning experiences and outcomes” by Hess and Gunter

Research purpose

The article, “Serious game-based and nongame-based online courses: Learning experiences and outcomes”, by Hess and Gunter (2013) shows that in the past decade, the use of online courses in learning has escalated significantly in the United States. The research problem arises from the need for further investigation of the use of serious games in an online format. The purpose of this research was to compare schooling experiences and outcomes between a serious game-based and non-game based online American course.

Research questions

  1. What factors of a serious game-based online American history course do students view as appropriate or as inhibiting their learning? By identifying these factors, the author sought to inform the instructional designers about the changes deemed necessary when developing video game-based courses.
  2. Will learner performance in a serious game-based online American history course differ from learner performance using a non-game based online American history course? The author sought to identify the impact of online gaming by using a control group.

Data collection procedure

This study used interview questions to conduct both qualitative and quantitative data analysis. A sample of 92 students was selected for the quantitative data analysis. For the qualitative analysis, eight respondents were selected.

Findings

Students using the serious game-based online American history course reported a higher mean grade as compared to those using a non-game based course. Students of online game-based courses identified various helpful factors including presentation of the content, ease of understanding, graphics, and the technical issues were the only hindrances. Students of a non-game based online course stated the helpful factors as interactive assignments and online format. The hindrances included unclear assignments, submitting assignments and discussion posting. The perception of usefulness was found to be positive.

“Exploring the Factors Influencing Learning Effectiveness in Digital Game-based Learning” by Tsai, Yu, and Hsiao

Research purpose

The study, “Exploring the Factors Influencing Learning Effectiveness in Digital Game-based Learning”, by Tsai, Yu, and Hsiao (2012) sought to examine the factors influencing the usefulness of the students’ knowledge acquisition in DGBL by developing an online learning game, viz. Super Delivery, to instill knowledge about saving electricity. The research problem entailed formulating a way to get people to adopt DGBL in the education system since they had shown reluctance despite having caught most of the people’s attention.

Research question

Why do “differences exist in the effectiveness of knowledge acquisition?” (Tsai et al., 2012, p. 241). The authors wanted to show that the misconception about DGBL was the main factor that influenced learning behaviors.

Data collection procedures

Data was obtained through “observing the cases and interviews gathered information linked to the participants’ practical effectiveness of knowledge acquisition” (Tsai et al., 2012, p. 244). Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to analyze the data.

Research findings

Students demonstrated three main gaming behaviors, which included the urge to acquire new knowledge, the ability to understand new knowledge, and playing techniques to counter game problems. Not all participants attained perfect knowledge concepts via game playing. This aspect was partly because the effectiveness of DGBL is a bit complicated. Thus, the “designers of the DGBL should factor in the differing student needs when developing DGBL” (Tsai et al., 2012, p. 249).

A game-based learning approach to improving student learning achievements in a nutrition course” by Yien, Hung, Hwang, and Lin

Research purpose

The study, “A game-based learning approach to improving student learning achievements in a nutrition course”, by Yien, Hung, Hwang, and Lin (2011) suggests that people have become concerned about their health, and thus shaping eating habits has become necessary. However, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of a game-based learning model in nutrition education by investigating the learning outcomes of the students in nutrition education through computer game-based training. The problem that steered this study was the lack of interest by students to adopt game-based learning in nutrition education.

Research questions

  1. What are the “impacts of the game-based learning model on students’ learning perceptions toward the nutrition course?” (Yien et al., 2011, p. 2). The authors sought to show that game-based learning is appropriate and interesting unlike how the majority of the students and teachers perceive it.
  2. What are the impacts of the game-based learning model on the students’ learning outcomes in the nutrition course?

Data collection procedure

Surveys were conducted using structured questionnaires to obtain data from the experimental and control groups each having a sample of 33 participants.

Research findings

This study reveals that computer “game-based learning promotes the learning outcomes and perceptions of students” (Yien et al., 2012, p. 7). Also, this study realized that the game-based learning model was useful for all participants regardless of gender concerning learning perceptions and nutritional knowledge.

“Are You Ready to Teach Secondary Mathematics in the 21st Century: A Study of Preservice Teachers’ Digital Game Design Experience” by Li, Lemieux, Vandermeiden, and Nathoo

Research purpose

Li, Lemieux, Vandermeiden, and Nathoo (2013) in their article, “Are You Ready to Teach Secondary Mathematics in the 21st Century: A Study of Preservice Teachers’ Digital Game Design Experience,” explore preservice teachers’ experience of training via game design. Their main purpose is to investigate “the preservice teachers’ perception about how digital games have evolved through designing and developing own educational games” (Li et al., 2013, p. 310). Also, this study examines the contemporary skills used in the game design and implementation process. The authors identified that teachers and students were lagging in terms of the adoption of game-based learning despite the drastic impact of technology.

Research questions

  1. What are the current skills depicted in the teachers’ game design and developing experience? The authors wanted to imply that teachers found it easy and interesting when using games, which they designed.
  2. How did designing and developing a game influence teacher attitudes about digital game building?

Data collection procedures

Open-ended, pre-surveys, post-surveys, as well as follow-up interviews, were used to collect data.

Research findings

This study found that digital game design lacking expert programming acts as a tool that instills the skill of persistence since students have to come up with procedures to solve problems. Struggling with designs leads to creativity, innovation, and confidence in students. The teachers’ perception changed after they realized that they could make fascinating games and assist students to develop creative reasoning. This realization would foster learning outcomes using game-based education programs.

References

Becker, K. (2007). Digital game-based learning once removed: Teaching teachers. British Journal of Educational Technology, 38(3), 478-488.

Brom, C., Sisler, V., & Slavık, R. (2010). Implementing digital game-based learning in schools: augmented learning environment of ‘Europe 2045’. Multimedia Systems, 16, 23–41.

Hess, T., & Gunter, G. (2013). Serious game-based online courses: learning experiences and outcomes. British Journal of Educational Technology, 44(3), 372-385.

Li, Q., Lemieux, C., Vandermeiden, E., & Nathoo, S. (2013). Are You Ready to Teach Secondary Mathematics in the 21st Century? A Study of Preservice Teachers’ Digital Game Design Experience. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 45(4), 309-337.

Ray, B., & Coulter, G. (2010). Perceptions of the Value of Digital Mini-Games: Implications for Middle School Classrooms. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 26(3), 92-100.

Sardone, B., & Devlin-Scherer, R. (2009). Teacher Candidates’ Views of Digital Games as Learning Device. Issues in Teacher Education, 18(2), 47-67.

Sardone, B., & Devlin-Scherer, R. (2010). Teacher Candidate Responses to Digital Games: 21st-Century Skills Development. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(4), 409-425.

Tsai, F., Yu, C., & Hsiao, H. (2012). Exploring the Factors Influencing Learning Effectiveness in Digital Game based Learning. Educational Technology & Society, 15(3), 240–250.

Yien, M., Hung, C., Hwang, G., & Lin, Y. (2011) A game-based learning approach to improving student’s learning achievements in a nutrition course. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 10(2), 1-10.

Yolageldili, G., & Arikan, A. (2011). Effectiveness of using games in teaching grammar to young learners. Elementary Education, 10(1), 219-229.

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IvyPanda. (2020, July 16). Digital Gaming in the Classroom: Teacher’s View. Retrieved from https://ivypanda.com/essays/digital-gaming-in-the-classroom-teachers-view/

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"Digital Gaming in the Classroom: Teacher’s View." IvyPanda, 16 July 2020, ivypanda.com/essays/digital-gaming-in-the-classroom-teachers-view/.

1. IvyPanda. "Digital Gaming in the Classroom: Teacher’s View." July 16, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/digital-gaming-in-the-classroom-teachers-view/.


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IvyPanda. "Digital Gaming in the Classroom: Teacher’s View." July 16, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/digital-gaming-in-the-classroom-teachers-view/.

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IvyPanda. 2020. "Digital Gaming in the Classroom: Teacher’s View." July 16, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/digital-gaming-in-the-classroom-teachers-view/.

References

IvyPanda. (2020) 'Digital Gaming in the Classroom: Teacher’s View'. 16 July.

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