An academic paper is a presentation of a researcher’s thoughts about a particular topic. This is based on a comprehensive analysis of his past knowledge and research about the topic. The academic paper, “Educational Validity of Business Gaming Simulation: A Research Methodology Framework,” by Stainton, Johnson, and Borodzicz is an analytical research paper. This is because the paper focuses on analyzing diverse opinions from different scientists.
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The authors have focused on the findings of other scientists, and have concluded the research paper with a proposed framework for further research on the subject (Stainton, Johnson and Borodzicz 2010). An academic paper is divided into different subsections, which include Title, Abstract, Table of Contents, Introduction, Methodology, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion (Denscombe 1998). This paper will discuss the extent to which the above article has followed the above layout.
Critical analysis of the paper sections
Objectives and findings of the paper
The major objective of the paper was to establish a methodology to evaluate the didactic validity of TES (Total Enterprise Simulation). This was done to investigate the validity of commercial gaming simulation. The research was to be done through planning, execution, and validation. The findings of the paper show that TES is a useful tool in determining the validity of an economic simulation game.
The title, “Educational Validity of Business Gaming Simulation: A Research
Methodology Framework,” gives a clear idea of the subject of the paper. The title is clear and informs the reader what the article is going to cover.
The abstract has given reasons as to why the article was written. It has related this with prior research by indicating that past research on the subject is questionable. The research paper has further stated that previous studies have concentrated on the limitations of economic simulation games without offering guidelines for evaluating educational validity of TES. However, it has not stated the main research questions of the study. The results of the research as stated in the abstract are to provide a basis for future studies that will help simulation designers apply valuable and didactic simulation techniques in the future (Denzin 1978).
The introduction has given reasons why the research paper was written. It states, “This article proposes a methodology framework for assessing the educational validity of business gaming simulation based on research conducted using Total Enterprise Simulation (TES) (Stainton, Johnson and Borodzicz 2010 P. 706). It further adds that for TES to be accepted as a reliable learning instrument, it is crucial that it be validated. Therefore, there is need for learner’s to invest time and money to carry out the research.
The main research issues involved in the paper include “issues of validity: internal.
Validity or changes in the student in classroom settings, external validity or the generalization of any learning effects to outside classroom situations, and transfer-internalizations validity or the ultimate impact of the simulation experience on the student’s career” (Gosen and Washbush, 2004 p. 273).
Limitations of the research
The limitations of the research are well stated in the paper. The methodology used in the research paper has not been successful in developing the exterior validity of an economic simulation game in a standard manner. As a result, the research fails to illustrate how information got from the economic simulation game has led to administrative success in the actual business world (Cook and Campbell 1979).
Some arguments made in the paper are valid while others have failed to distinguish factual statements from people’s opinion. For instance, the paper states, “The existing educational validity literature does not provide an adequate research methodology for business gaming simulation. Instead, past studies have tended to focus on the reporting of findings rather than to propose a basis for conducting validity investigations” (Stainton, Johnson and Borodzicz 2010 P. 706). In the argument, the authors use chosen instances to demonstrate evidence for their information. The language used in the paper is simple to understand and unnecessary difficult language has not been used.
Collecting and analyzing of research material
Collection and analysis of research materials was done to authenticate the educational efficiency of economic gaming simulation. Data used was based on experiences from previous research conducted by the authors in the previous three years. During the three years, simulation was used to teach senior executives in international corporations. A multi-case research design was used in the research. The research method was described in detail and gave the reasons as to why the researchers used a multiple case study. It also illustrated a proposed research method in relation to simulation design and execution (Alessi 1988).
The research method adopted is relevant to the research question. This is because the method “allows investigators to retain the holistic and meaningful characteristics of real-life events—such as managerial processes” (Yin, 2003 p. 2). Since the objective of TES is to allow participants to put into practice diverse managerial thinking procedures within a broad economic surrounding, we can conclude that the case study method offered the best opportunity for this kind of analysis. It allowed for multiple perceptions of participants to be examined in depth. Validity issues were evident in the research (Bryman and Bell 2003).
The conclusion made in the article is significant. However, though the article has developed a research design that should be used in validation related research, alternative explanations show that TES has not yet succeeded in establishing the validity of an economic simulation game.
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Alessi, S. (1988) Fidelity in the design of instructional simulations. Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 15(2), 40-47.
Bryman, A., and Bell, E. (2003) Business research methods. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Cook, T. D., and Campbell, D. T. (1979) Quasi-experimentation: Design and analysis issues for field settings. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Denscombe, M. (1998) The good research guide: For small-scale social research projects. Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
Denzin, N. K. (1978) The research act: A theoretical introduction to sociological methods. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Gosen, J., and Wash bush, J. (2004) A review of scholarship on assessing experiential learning effectiveness. Simulation and Gaming: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 35, 270-293.
Stainton, A., Johnson, J.E., and Borodzicz, E. (2010) Educational Validity of Business Gaming Simulation: A Research Methodology Framework. Simulation and Gaming: An interdisciplinary Journal of Theory, Practice and Research, 41 (2).
Yin, R. (2003) Case study research design and methods. London: Sage.