Using standards helps determine the quality of the research and ensures its validity (Morse et al. 15). In this case, this instrument usually identifies a minimal level to be accepted as a reliable one or highlights the expectations to be met. Nonetheless, the primary drawback is the fact that it creates a clash of interests between “real” and idealized expectations and may increase the bias of the results (Morse et al. 16).
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It remains apparent that the validity and reliability of the results are dependent on the skills and competences of the researcher. In this case, the investigator has to able to apply various techniques to assess the outcomes and critique the results (Heale and Twycross 66). This aspect is relevant for both quantitative and qualitative research.
Data Verification Approaches
The researchers can use various strategies to avoid the bias of the research results. In this case, the scholar can apply methods such as taking descriptive notes, “data tranquilization”, and collaboration with other scientists (Noble and Smith 34).
It is one of the types of validity, which helps to ensure that all research instruments address the same variables (“Reliability and Validity” 3). Using this approach assists in achieving the most relevant outcomes, as the researcher focuses on the compliance of the data acquisition instruments with the expected study outcomes.
Generalizability is one of the measures, which affects the overall validity and reliability of the study. It remains apparent that the research sample is only able to cover a small group of the population, and this fact implies that the majority of responses are generalized (Leung 325). In this case, the results might be biased while influencing validity in a negative way (Leung 325).
In the context of validity and reliability, rigor is a strong obstacle, which the researcher has to overcome to deliver the results to the audience. In the case of the qualitative study, the primary rigor is to ensure that the results are valid and comply with the scientific theories and assumptions (Gioia, Corley, and Hamilton 15).
This term has a clear correlation with the validity and reliability in qualitative research. In this case, trustworthiness ensures that the results are valuable and can be actively used in the subsequent studies (Elo et al. 2). In this case, it pertains to the fact that the outcomes have to be consistent with the research measures and objectives and be valid (Elo et al. 2).
It is one of the critical components of validity and reliability concepts, and it implies that the experiences highlighted in the qualitative study are accepted and recognized by the rest of the society (Thomas and Magilvy 152). In this case, it could be said that it has to have similarities with the previous findings and the commonly accepted behavior.
In turn, dependability is a critical constituent of validity and reliability concepts, and it focuses on the fact the different phases of the study are dependent on each other (Sinkovics, Penz, and Chauri 690). For instance, defining the purpose of the research has a vehement impact on the selection of the research methodology and sampling techniques.
It could be said that transferability is another critical component to assure a high level of validity and reliability of the results. In this case, this aspect implies that the findings can be applicable and transferable to different contexts (Polit and Beck 1451).
Elo, Satu, Maria Kaarianen, Outu Kanste, Tarja Polkki, Kati Utriainen, and Helvi Kyngas. Qualitative Content Analysis: A Focus on Trustworthiness. 2015. Web.
Gioia, Dennis, Kevin Corley, and Aimee Hamilton. “Seeking Qualitative Rigor in Inductive Research: Notes on Gioia Methodology.” Organizational Research Methods 16.1 (2012): 15-31. Print.
Heale, Roberta, and Alison Twycross. “Validity and Reliability in Quantitative Studies.” Evidence-Based Nursing 18.3 (2015): 66-67. Print.
Leung, Lawrence. “Validity, reliability, and generalizability in qualitative research.” Journal of Family Medicine in Primary Care 4.3 (2015): 324-327. Print.
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Morse, Janice, Michael Barrett, Maria Mayan, Karin Olson, and Jude Spiers. “Verification Strategies for Establishing Reliability and Validity in Qualitative Research.” International Journal of Qualitative Methods 1.2 (2002): 13-22. Print.
Noble, Helen, and Joanna Smith. “Issues of Validity and Reliability in Qualitative Research.” Evidence-Based Nursing 18.1 (2015): 34-35. Print.
Polit, Denise, and Cheryl Beck. “Generalization of Qualitative and Quantitative Research: Myths and Strategies.” International Journal of Nursing Studies 47.11 (2010): 1451-1458. Print.
Reliability and Validity. 2016. Web.
Sinkovics, Rudolf, Elfriede Penz, and Pervez Chauri. “Enhancing the Trustworthiness of Qualitative Research in International Business.” Management International Reviews 48.1 (2010): 689-714. Print. Web.
Thomas, Eileen, and Joan Magilvy. “Qualitative Rigor or Research Validity in Qualitative Research.” Journal for Specialists in Qualitative Research 16.1 (2016): 151-155. Print. Web.